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The land plants are probably descendants of which group?
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Biology 2 - Leaderboard
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Biology 2 - Details
1) Chapter 1
The land plants are probably descendants of which group?
Alternation of generations means that plants produce:
Both haploid and diploid multi-cellular organisms
What trait of land plants allows them to grow in height?
How does a haplonic plant population maintain genetic diversity?
Zygotes are produced by random fusion
What characteristics of Charales would enable them to survive a dry spell?
What characteristic is present in land plants but not Charales?
Alternation of generations
What result would support the conclusion that charophytes should be included in the plant kingdom?
The Chara genome is more similar to the tomato plant genome than the red algae genome.
Which feature does not support the inclusion of charophytes in the plantae kingdom?
Charophytes are multi-cellular organisms that lack vascular tissue.
What structure is not found in bryophytes?
Stomata appear in which group of plants
The chromosome complement in a moss protonema is:
Why do mosses grow well in the Arctic Tundra?
They do not have true roots and can grow on hard surfaces.
Which life-cycle stage should be most common in bryophytes?
Microphylls are characteristic of which types of plants?
Segmented stem and slender leaves arranged in a whorl is probably a:
What structures are found on the underside of fern leaves and contain sporangia?
The dominant organism in fern is the ___
What seedless plant is a renewable source of energy?
How do mosses contribute to returning nitrogen to the soil?
Mosses decompose rocks and release nitrogen.
The production of megaphylls by many different species of plants is an example of ___.
Seed plants are?
Besides the seed, what other major structure diminishes a plant's reliance on water for reproduction?
In which geological period would gymnosperms dominate the landscape?
What structure widens the geographic range of a species and is an agent of dispersal?
What trait characterizes gymnosperms?
The plants carry exposed seeds on modified leaves.
Magasporocytes will eventually produce what?
What is the ploidy of the following structures: gametophyte, seed embryo, spore, sporophyte?
1n, 2n, 1n, 2n
In the northern forests of Siberia, a tall tree is most likely a:
Which structure of a flower is not directly involved in reproduction?
Pollen grains develop in which structure?
In the course of double fertilization, one sperm egg fuses with the egg and the second one fuses with ____.
The polar nuclei of the center cell.
Corn develops from a seedling with a single cotyledon, displays parallel veins on its leaves, and produces monosulcate pollen. It is most likely:
What structure is not a defense against herbivory?
White and sweet smelling flowers with nectar that open at night are probably pollinated by:
Abundant and powdery pollen produced by small, indistinct flowers is probably transported by:
Plants are a source of:
Food, fuel, and medicine.
In a plant's male reproductive organs, development of pollen takes place in a structure known as the ___.
The stamen consists of a long stalk called the filament that supports the:
The ___ are collectively called the calyx
The pollen lands on which part of the flower?
After double fertilization, a zygote and ____ form.
The fertilized ovule gives rise to the ___.
What is the term for a fruit that develops from tissues other than the ovary?
The ____ is the outermost covering of a fruit.
____ is a useful method of asexual reproduction for propagating hard-to-root plants.
What is an advantage of asexual reproduction?
When cuttings or buds are taken from an adult plant or plant parts, the resulting plant will grow into an adult faster than a seedling.
Plants that flower once in their lifetime are known as:
Plant species that complete their lifecycle in one season are known as:
Which of the following is not a way that protists contribute to the food web? a. They fix carbon into organic molecules. b. They enter symbiotic relationships with animals. c. They occupy the apex producer niche. d. They recycle nutrients back into the carbon and nitrogen cycles.
C. They occupy the apex producer niche.
Which parasitic protist evades the host immune system by altering its surface proteins with each generation?
An example of carbon fixation is __.
A marine biologist analyzing water samples notices a protist with a calcium carbonate shell that moves by pseudopodia extension. The protist is likely to be closely related to which species?
What genus of protists appears to contradict the statement that unicellularity restricts cell size?
What is the function of the raphe in diatoms?
How many daughter cells are produced during conjugation between two paramecia?
Which protist group exhibits mitochondrial remnants with reduced functionality?
The amoeba E. histolytica is a pathogen that forms liver abscesses in infected individuals. Its metabolic classification is most likely _____
Alternation of generations describes what?
Both the haploid and diploid forms can be multicellular.
What locomotor organ is the shortest?
Protists with the capabilities to perform photosynthesis and to absorb nutrients from dead organisms are called ______________.
Protists that have a pellicle are surrounded by ______________.
Which of the following observations about a bacterium would distinguish it from the last eukaryotic common ancestor?
Lack of a membrane-bound structure surrounding the genome
In 2016, scientists published the genome of Monocercomonoides, and demonstrated that this organism has no detectable mitochondrial genes. However, its genome was arranged in linear chromosomes wrapped around histones which are contained within the nucleus. Monocercomonoides is therefore a(n) _________.
Which protist is believed to have evolved following a secondary endosymbiosis?
Mitochondria most likely evolved by _____________.
Which characteristic is shared by prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
Oxygenation of the atmosphere
In addition to providing yogurt with its unique flavor and texture, lactic acid-producing bacteria also provide which additional benefit during food production?
Lowering the pH to kill pathogenic bacteria
Bioremediation includes _____.
The use of prokaryotes to clean up pollutants
Which of these occurs through symbiotic nitrogen fixation? a. The plant benefits from using on endless source of nitrogen b. The soil benefits from being naturally fertilized. c. Bacteria benefits from using photosynthates from the plant. d. All of the above.
All of the above
MRSA has emerged as a serious infectious disease, with the first case of methicillin-resistant S. aureus being detected in 1961. Why are medical professionals so concerned when antibiotics exist that can kill MRSA? a. MRSA can transfer methicillin-resistance to other bacteria. b. Patients are not treated with correct antibiotics rapidly enough to prevent serious illness. c. MRSA could acquire additional antibiotic resistance genes from other bacteria to become a “super bug.” d. All of the above
All of the above
Which of these statements is true? a. An antibiotic is any substance produced by a prokaryote that is antagonistic to the growth of other viruses. b. An antibiotic is any substance produced by a organism that is antagonistic to the growth of prokaryotes. c. An antibiotic is any substance produced by a prokaryote that is antagonistic to the growth of eukaryotic cells. d. An antibiotic is any substance produced by a prokaryote that prevents growth of the same prokaryote.
An antibiotic is any substance produced by a organism that is antagonistic to the growth of prokaryotes.
A disease that is constantly present in a population is called _____.
Cyanobacteria harness energy from the sun through photosynthesis, and oxidize water to provide electrons for energy generation. Thus, we classify cyanobacteria as _________.
Plants use carbon dioxide from the air and are therefore called _____.
Ammonification is the process by which _____.
Ammonia is released during the decomposition of nitrogen-containing organic compounds
Prokaryotes that obtain their energy from chemical compounds are called _____.
Which of the following elements is not a micronutrient? a. calcium b. boron c.chromium d. manganese
The lipopolysaccharide layer (LPS) is a characteristic of the wall of ________.
Pseudopeptidoglycan is a characteristic of the walls of ________.
Archaean prokaryotic cells
Prokaryotes stain as Gram-positive or Gram-negative because of differences in the cell _______.
Organisms most likely to be found in extreme environments are ________.
The cell wall is ________.
Exterior to the cell membrane
What consists of prokaryotic cells?
Bacteria and archaea
The presence of a membrane-enclosed nucleus is a characteristic of ________.
Halophiles are organisms that require________.
A salt concentration of at least 0.2 M
The first organisms that oxygenated the atmosphere were ______ .
Microbial mats __________.
Are the earliest forms of life on Earth, obtained their energy and food from hydrothermal vents, and are multi-layered sheets of prokaryotes including mostly bacteria but also archaea
The first forms of life on Earth were thought to be_________.
True or false viroids are single-stranded RNA particles
True or false viroids reproduce only outside of the cell
True or false viroids produce proteins
True or false viroids affect both plants and animals
Which of the following is not associated with proteins: Toxic proteins, DNA, Replicating shapes, Mad cow disease
Stimulate an immune response
Which of the following is NOT used to treat active viral disease: Phage therapy, vaccines, antiviral drugs, antibiotics.
A bacteriophage can infect ________.
DNA viruses _______?
Use host cell's machinery to produce new copies of their genome.
Oncogenic virus cores can be_______.
Either RNA or DNA
Transcribes RNA to make DNA