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GCSE Geography AQA 2020-2022

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What is Aid? Is there any challenges?

This is where money and resources are given to another country to help them recover maybe from a natural disaster or in huge population growth. The challenge could be from corruption by the government or it gets stolen.

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GCSE Geography AQA 2020-2022 - Details



435 questions
What is Aid? Is there any challenges?
This is where money and resources are given to another country to help them recover maybe from a natural disaster or in huge population growth. The challenge could be from corruption by the government or it gets stolen.
What makes countries richer than others?
It depends on 1. Its history, did it get colonized, did it have an empire, does it get along with its neighbours. 2. It economic side, does it have any primary products, is it in debt. 3. Its physical side. does it have any natural resources, does it have good climate, dose it have a coast.
Define Development
Improving or getting better
What is the HDI
The HDI is the Wealth, Education and Health systems are in the country. This is commonly used to measure Development.
Why is HDI a good way to rank countries?
The reason is because if you only use one type like GDP per capita, it will tell you how much money people get but has the number can be imbalanced by very rich people and also its says nothing about Education, Health etc...
What is Intermediate Technology and why is it used?
Intermediate technology is where its something simple to make and cheap to use. Like bikes. Its good for some lesser developed countries as they cant afford to have high tech technology as they might not have enough money, resources, jobs.
What is Debt Relief?
Debt Relief is simply cancelling or just lowering the interest of the money you owe back. This could help some countries who struggle to get money.
What is Foreign Direct Investment?
This is where companies invest into LIC's and NEE's to make jobs, money, improve infrastructure etc..
How does Toruism help a country out?
Countries like Jamaica benefit hugely from tourism. Tourism can create a lot of jobs and money and can also help out the local businesses like restaurants and pubs as because more people come in to eat and stay.
What is Fair trade?
Fair trade is where farmers can get a fair price for the crops they grow/obtain.
How do you Industrial Develop?
For that to happen, you need factorises. They can make more products, employ more people, increase the GDP overall, improve infrastructure and transport and can open new trade
What is a micro finance loan?
This is just like a loan except its for people who struggle paying back a normal loan. This can be used to start business and buy essentials.
What exactly is the Development Gap?
This is the difference between HIC's [Higher Income Countries] and LIC's [Lower Income Countires.] eg. comparing UK and The Gambia or Japan and Niger
What are the 4 different types of Aid?
1. Short term aid. Usually provided after disasters and used for funding emergency operations 2. Long term aid. Usually provided to help the economic and social development side for a long time period. It's mainly HIC's giving to LIC's and NEE's 3. Top down aid. Usually provided to make large scale projects that can make massive impacts. Its mainly the Governments and organisation [like the UN] that give this type of aid. 4. Bottom up aid. Usually provided to help local communities out and can help their quality of life. This goes right to the people.
What are TNC's. And are they good?
TNC's are companies that operate in more than in one country. They expand internationally and can help themselves out and countries too. India is a very nice place for TNC's as their large pool of labour and low wages makes it very nice. TNC's provide jobs and can help the infrastructure while the Indian government gets taxes from them and their employment rates go up. However TNC's could drain resources from their local community or the working condition could be shambles.
What is the Population of a country?
This says how many people live in the country
How does the Population refer to how delveopletd a country is?
So. If the country was doing horrible, and the health system was basically non existent. Then the death rate and the birth rate would relatively stay the same but be very high. Lots of babies could be born but then a lot of them could die. Like the 1600s and before that for UK. If the country however had an amazing health system and overall a great HDI. Then the death rate and birth rate would be low. This is because women tend to have more education so have less children and have them later in life. And also because common cuts cant really kill people back in the 1600s. An example would be Japan or Germany.
What are the 5 stages of the Population Demographic?
The first stage is where the population is low but the death rate and the birth rate is high. The second stage is where the death rate goes down but the birth rate stays the same which means the population goes up. The third stage has the birth rate go down so the population slows down. The fourth stage is when the birth rate and the death rate are close to each other so the population barely goes up. The fifth stage is when the birth rate goes under the death rate which means a slow decrease in population
Why could they be running out?
They could be running due to many reasons. -For energy, Fossil fuels are hard to extract, Non renewable energy are very good but some are expensive or not enough or some countries cant keep up with the demand. -For food, Climate change doesn't do us a lot of help as it can dramatically change the weather. Diseases could wipe out farms and wars could destroy the food supply. -Finally for water, clean water isn't equally distributed, Infrastructure could affect the transport of water and Wars could erupt to gain more clean water.
Why do we have a problem with those key resources?
Its mainly due to the Distribution of it. -North America and Europe tend to have a lot more than parts of Asia and Africa because they can buy more. -Also, as more people get richer and better developed, They will consume more. -China and India are both consuming more at a rate which could be problematic
Why can African nations not extract the resources?
Reasons are that it can be really expensive to extract to get. It could also be that they don't have that type of tech yet. Another reason can be of corruption like in the DRC
Why is food a problem if countires can grow enough?
Because some countries grow food but not to feed people but for a cash crop. Kenya grows green beans and China and the UK buy a lot of them.
What could water shortage lead to?
It results into industries being shut down, people being hydrated, people being clean, growing food.
Is there demand of water going up?
Yes. In the future, the middle east, south Asia, China, USA, Mexico and Europe will demand much more.
What are the types of ways to harness energy?
1. Fossil fuels which is ready made energy source so you can just burn it to make energy. 2. Nuclear power which makes heat energy from spillting atoms. 3. Wind power which uses the global cycle of wind to its advantage 4. Hydro power which is using the ocean and lakes to make power. 5. Solar Power which uses the Sun to make energy
What are the advantages and disadvantages of them?
1.Fossil fuels are ready made so is very easy to use but does release greenhouse gases which leads to Global warming 2. Nuclear power is really powerful and can last for a while but nuclear waste can be expensive to get rid off. Also the safety concern of it. 3. Wind power do nothing to the climate but the NIMBY movement and its quite expensive to establish. 4. Wave power can make a lot of energy but could easily be destroyed 5. Solar power does nothing and is cheap but transferring the energy is a problem 6. Hydroelectric dams can help control the river but a mistake could mean catastrophic consequences 7. Tidal power can be a predictable energy source but is expensive.
What is water security and insecurity?
Water security is when you have more than enough water to pass the demand for water but water insecurity is when you dont have enough water to keep with demand.
What can affect the energy supply?
The energy side can be affected by: Physical effects like where it is and limitations Technology which basically is new ways of extracting resources but the problem is some countries might not be able to catch on. Political effects like wars to gain the resource or to convert to non renewable which could challenge middle eastern and south american nations and finally, Cost of the resource as since they are running out, the price will go up. So high that countries could be stuck.
What can prove its existence?
`1. Remain of the creature in oceans beds and was turned in to fossils via the environment. 2. Tree rings getting thicker because the environment is getting warmer and wetter 3. The gas levels trapped in ice can show how it has changed over 400 thousand years 4. The temperature has generally been going up at a explosive rate 5. Pollen can be analysed and can show how plants grew 6. History records can show how it was years ago.
What can Climate change lead to?
Climate change can change environments which could lead to farming being worse, animals and plants being endangered, water being even harder to get, natural hazards being even worse, sea levels rising, heat-health problems, tipping points and more
What caused Climate Change?
Causes can be the Greenhouse effect where we are adding a lot of co2 which cause the Earth to heat up because we are trapping the heat, Deforestation the trees which means habitat loss and removing one of the cleanest ways to get CO2 out of the air, Agriculture produces massive amount of CO2 and they also produce methane which makes a horrible gas, Nitrous oxide. Factories work around the clock to make stuff but also make hug tons of CO2. The natural side of Climate change would include Volcanoes as it pumps CO2 and other gases, The sun output its energy [however this is questioned] and the orbit as when we get closer,we get hotter.
What does Mitigration mean?
This means to limit the causes of Global warming via reducing the concentration of greenhouse gases
Are there any Mitigation strategies?
Yes 1. Transition from fossile fuels to renewable energy which wont negativley effect the environment. The EU is planning on this 2. Using Technology like Carbon capture where you catch Carbon dioxide and put it underground 3. Unions and agreements can influence and help countries thrive for a green world. The Paris agreement is a prime example 4. Planting more trees as they soak up CO2 for Photosynthesis. Around 73 million trees are planned to be planted in the Amazon
What does Adaptaion mean?
To limit the bad effects of climate change to humans [adapting to it]
How can we adapt food, water and rising seas?
1. Food can be genetically modified or can be located somewhere else 2. Water technology could be installed to help get more water. 3. Physical barriers and defence set up
What does Extinction mean?
It means a spices is complete dead and no longer exists.
Why is it bad that certain animals or plants go extinct?
Some plants/animals help the environment and provide a lot of medical usage. It also keeps the food chain for not collapsing.
In Britain, what are some mammals that are close to extinct
Hare, European water vole, European hedgehog, nathusium's and Whiskered.
What is special about Tasmanian devils?
They came back after a 3000 years of silence.
How are pandemics caused?
They are caused by human action on the environment. Some can be because of resistant bacteria and others could be awful hygiene
Are we affecting the rate of extinction?
Extinction happens now mainly because of us. It was always going to happen but we are now speeding it up. This could happen from Plastic pollution,awful hygiene, using them for resources, agriculture, farming, climate change, deforestation and more.
What can cause Extinction?
The demand for certain resources. Soy oil is a prime example as it is used in a lot of things. The main problem is that most of it comes from deforestation the rain forest. We have a growing population which in turn causes more demand. Which means more deforestation. Which means more spices gets endangered. The other reason is Climate Change. The climate changing can destroy certain habitats which in turn can cause mass extinction or mass migration.
What are Natural Hazards?
They are extreme natural events which can equal life loss, a ton of damage to property and disturbs humans activities
Give examples of Natural Hazards
-Flooding -Earthquakes -Tropical Storms -Volcanoes -Droughts
What are the two types of Natural Hazards?
-Tectonic Hazards and -Climatic Hazards
What is Tectonic Hazards?
This is involving the Earth's Crust movement. An Example would be Earthquakes the plate moves, creates friction which leads the plates to be stuck and can will build up in Tention until its released which will start an Earthquake
Name 4l examples of Tectonic Hazards
-Earthquakes -Volcanoes -Tsunamis -Mountain Avalanches
What is Climatic hazards?
This is involving weather conditions. An example would be Flooding. Flooding comes from Heavy rainfall, which is a weather condition
Name 4 types of Climatic hazards
-Flooding -Tornadoes -Tropical Storms [Hurricanes, Cyclones etc..] -Droughts
What types of Risks come from Hazards?
You can have a Economic, Social and Environmental
What factors can affect the risks of a Natural Hazard?
Country's Infastructure can affect Economic [More Infastrcuture affected equals More expense] Building quality can affect Social [Better Quality = Lesser Deaths.] Oil spillages can affect Environmental [The land is being affected]
Are hazards risks being increased? Why?
They are. This is due to the Urbanisation growth, the pressure on the Marginal Land [Bad land to develop] and the Rapid changes to the Natural Environment
What are the 4 layers of Earth?
-Crust -Mantle -Outer Core -Inner Core
Describe the Inner Core
Its located in the centre of Earth Its the hottest part of Earth [5500 degrees Centegrade] Its solid, made of iron and nickel
Describe the Outer Core
Located surrounding the Inner Core It is a Liquid, but made of Iron and Nickel.
Describe the Mantle
Thickest section of Earth [2900km] Made of Magma [semi molten rock]
Describe the Crust
Outer layer of Earth Thin [60km] This is what we stand and build on Can be split to Oceanic or Continental Plates Is broken in parts [Plates]
Do Convection Currents move plates around?
Yes they do How it works is the Convection current [movement inside the Mantle due to the heat of the core] in the Mantle has slowly moved the crust around
What is Slab Pull?
This is an idea that also connects with Convection Currents How this one works is that older, denser tectonic plates sink into the mantle at subduction zones. When they sink, newer and less dense sections are pulled along behind. This 'sinking' can cause plates to move apart in some places
What is Oceanic crust?
This type of crust is found underneath oceans. It is denser then Continental crust which means it can be Subducted
What is Continental crust?
This type of crust is found under land masses or even continents. It is older then oceanic crust and is less often destroyed.
Where can Earthquakes happen?
They can happen in every plate boundry
Where can Volcanoes happen?
They can only happen in Construction and Destructive [Subduct] plate boundaries.
What is a Destructive Plate Margin?
This is when a Oceanic plate collides with a Continental plate. The Oceanic plate is forced under the Continental plate as because its heavier. It Subducts. As the plate sinks into the mantle or Lithosphere, it melts to become magma. This newly formed magma, along with the other magma in the mantle builds pressure below the Crust. It then escapes by going through the weakness in the rock and becomes a Composite Volcano.
Properties of a Composite Volcano?
They erupt violently with lots of steam, gas and ash
What is a Collison plate margin?
This is when two Continental plate margins collide. None of them sink, but they buckle upwards to make Fold Mountains, Like Mount Everest. Volcanoes cant happen here as there is no opening or additional pressure
What is a Constructive plate marigin?
This is when two plates move away from each other. When this happens, the magma from the Mantle rises to make new crust or a Shield Volcano. Earthquakes happen to, as the magma rising can release the pressure of rocks holding together.
What is a Conservative Plate margin?
This is when two plates move side by side in different speeds. As they move, friction can build up until the friction created stops the plate. The pressure builds up as the plates want to move, until it isn't, which creates an earthquake. These Earthquakes are deadly. No volcanoes can happen here, as there isn't a opening.
What causes Earthquakes?
They are caused by the movement of plates which leads to friction being built up which will release massive amounts energy to make the Earth's surface shake.
What is the Focus?
This is where the shockwaves originated from.
What is the Seismic waves?
This is the Earthquakes energy movement.
What is the epicentre?
This is the point directly above the Focus
How would you measure the magnitude of Earthquakes?
You would use the Richter Scale, which tells you the magnitude of an earthquake in a scale of 1-10. However if two earthquakes was a scale of 5 and 6, the 6 is ten times more powerful then 5. You can also use the Moment Magnitude Scale which is used for the harder hitter Earthquakes [7+]
What is a seismometer?
This is the machine that detects the seismic waves from Earthquakes
How bad would a Earthquake with a scale of 2 be?
You probably wouldn't even notice. These are very common.
How bad would a Earthquake with a scale of 9 be?
This can be devastating and can be a massive crisis.
What effects can happen from a Earthquake? How is it Varied?
-Magnitude of the Earthquake. Higher it is, the more destruction -Level of Development. Richer countries will typically have less deaths but higher costs. Poorer countries will have higher deaths but lower costs. -Depth of Focus. If its shallow, its going to be more deadly -Distance from Epicentre. If your closer to the Epicentre, its going to be more deadly -Population Density. More people together equals more deaths/injuries -Time of Day. Are they at work, home or sleeping?
What can effects be categorised? Name example
Primary or Immediate effects. They happen very fast after an earthquake. Example would be deaths Secondary or Long term effects. They happen after in hours, days or weeks. Example would be Famine
What are the two types of Responses? Name example
-Short term or Immediate Responses. This useally happens within the days and weeks after a disaster. Example would be Search and Rescue. -Long Term Responses. This goes on for months and years after the disaster. Example would be rebuilding.
What are the 3Ps?
This is Prediction, Protection and Prepartion. This is used to save lives
Describe Prediction
This is using the seismometers to monitor tremors. This is also to locate where it could possibly happen. The only difficult thing is when it will happen.
Describe Protection
This involves constructing buildings to be Earthquake-Proof or Safe to live in. Some techniques of Earthquake proof Skyscrapers could be -Rubber shock absorbers in the foundation, to soak up the tremors -Steel frames that can sway in the Earth's movement -Open areas outside the building, for evacuation
Describe Preparation
This has everyone in Earthquake prone countries practice for a real life example. Drills and evacuation plans are set which can decrease the death toll.
Where is Chile and Nepal on the HDI
Chile is 38th, Nepal is 109th Clear difference on who is richer
Where was the 2010 Chilean Earthquake located? what caused it?
Measuring 8.8 on the Richter scale, it was located on the coast of Central Chile where the South American Plate had subducted the Nazca Plate, causing an Earthquake. Tsunamis also happened, as the epicentre was on the water.
Where was the 2015 Nepalian Earthquake located? what caused it?
Measuring 7.9 on the Richter Scale, The epicentre was situated 80km north-west from its Capital, Kathmadu. This happened from the Eurasian Plate colliding with the Indo-Australia Plate. The focus was only 15km deep making it more violent. This Earthquake also mange to disrupt Tibet, India and Pakistan.
What was the primary effects of the Chilean Earthquake? Name 5.
-500 people were killed -12000 people were injured -220,000 homes were destroyed -Chile had lost power, water, supplies and communications. -The cost was around 30 billon dollars
What was the primary effects of the Nepalian Earthquake? Name 5.
-9000+ people died -20,000 people injured -3 million people left homeless -50% of shops destroyed, affecting food supplies -Cost was around 5 billion dollars.
What was the Secondary effects of the Chilean Earthquake? Name 3.
-1500km of roads badly damaged -A fire broke out in a Chemical Plant in Santiago -Several Pacific countries badly damaged from Tsunami waves
What was the Secondary effects of the Nepalian Earthquake? Name 3.
-Avalanches of Mount Everest killed 19 people -The Kali Gandaki River was blocked, many people left due to the idea of flooding -An avalanche in Langtang had 250 people missing
What was the Immediate Responses in Chile? Name 3.
-Emergency services acted quickly and International help was needed to supply field hospitals, satellite phones and floating bridges -Power and Water was restored to 90% of homes in 10 days -Quick repairs were made to the Route 5, connecting Santiago back again.
What was the immediate responses in Nepal? Name 3.
-Search and Rescue teams, water and medicine was provided fast by countries like the United Kingdom, India and China. -Half a million tents set up for shelter. -Helicopters went to Mount Everest to rescue trapped survivors
What was the Long term responses in Chile? Name 3.
-Chile launched a hosuing recounstruction plan to help bring people back to shelter. -Chile quickly rebuilt its main export, rebooting the economy -Chile's President announced a 4 year plan to fully recover.
What was the long term responses in Nepal? Name 3.
-Stricter control on Building codes was set up -Tourism was being rebooted, economy was being rebooted -7000+ schools was to be rebuilt/repaired
How do Volcanoes Form?
They form when Magma reaches the surface, in which it erupts to make Lava. They are usually located along Constructive and Destructive Plate margins.