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Module 17 lesson 4-5


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St. Petersburg
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To promote education and growth, Peter wanted a seaport that would make it easier to travel to the West. Therefore, Peter fought Sweden to gain a piece of the Baltic coast. After 21 long years of war, Russia finally won

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St. Petersburg
To promote education and growth, Peter wanted a seaport that would make it easier to travel to the West. Therefore, Peter fought Sweden to gain a piece of the Baltic coast. After 21 long years of war, Russia finally won
St. Petersburg
To promote education and growth, Peter wanted a seaport that would make it easier to travel to the West. Therefore, Peter fought Sweden to gain a piece of the Baltic coast. After 21 long years of war, Russia finally won
Ivan III of Moscow
Was a great ruler, conquered a lot of cities around Moscow. He liberated part of Russia from the Mongols. He began centralizing the government, he had spy's to stay communicated with him to know what was up in his kingdom.
Vasily
Son of Ivan III continued the same as his father, added more territory to Russia, increased the power of the central government, continued fortifying the power of the center.
Ivan IV the terrible
Son of Vasily, became king when he was 3 years old, so the nobles took advantage to keep away monarch and they tried to kill him, when Ivan IV was 16 he was coronated (Himself) king, started the term Czar. When Anastasia died began the bad period, he turned against the boyars and using anew secret police he executed many boyars, their families and peasants who worked on their lands He killed his older son and when he died his other son had to rule but was uncapable and when he died started the times of trouble because there was no heir and boyars wanted power but agreed Michael Romanov the grandnephew of Anastasia to start ruling
Anastasia
Wife of Ivan IV part of the Romanov boyars, when she died Ivan IV became the Terrible period. Ivan accused the boyar of poisoning her.
Michael Romanov
Grandnephew of Anastasia started the Romanov Dynasty
Peter I The great
Absolut ruler admired the western Europm and lnew russia was behind, was 24 years old when he became the sole ruler of Russia. he embarked on the “Grand Embassy,” a long visit to western Europe to learn about European customs and manufacturing techniques.
Serfdom
Russian landowners wanted serfs to stay on the land and produce large harvests. The landowners treated the serfs like property. When a Russian landowner sold a piece of land, he sold the serfs with it. Landowners could give away serfs as presents or to pay debts. It was also against the law for serfs to run away from their owners.
Peter wants westernization
After the trip he wanted westernization but knew some will be against. *Peter abolished the office of patriarch, head of the Church and set up a group called the Holy Synod to run the Church under his direction. *Peter reduced the power of the great landowners. He recruited men from lower-ranking families. He then promoted them to positions of authority and rewarded them with grants of land. *To modernize his army, Peter hired European officers, who drilled his soldiers in European tactics with European weapons. Being a soldier became a lifetime job. To pay for this huge army, Peter imposed heavy taxes.
Westernizing Russia
*introduced potatoes *started Russia’s first newspaper and edited its first issue himself *raised women’s status by having them attend social gatherings *ordered the nobles to give up their traditional clothes for Western fashions; *advanced education by opening a school of navigation and introducing schools for the arts and sciences. Peter believed that education was a key to Russia’s progress. subjects were not only permitted to leave the country, many were forced to do it.
Russia was behind
*They were very traditionalist. Boyars didn’t care about modern, wester things *They were isolated, they had just 1 port, Archangel port. It was congelado, So it was very difficult to get transportation of products. He wanted to make another port *Not a lot of people went to Russia *The Mongols didn't allow Russia to experience the renaissance *This people were eastern orthodox, while the rest of Europe were Catholics, they saw them as heretics (Russia) *the economic system was still feudalism, thee serves were the owner of that land, almost were slaves because they had little payment, they could be sold and gifted *there wasn’t new technologies because there wasn't a boom to learn new things
St. Petersburg
To promote education and growth, Peter wanted a seaport that would make it easier to travel to the West. Therefore, Peter fought Sweden to gain a piece of the Baltic coast. After 21 long years of war, Russia finally won
James I
James inherited the unsettled issues of Elizabeth’s reign. His worst struggles with Parliament were over money. In addition, James offended the Puritan members of Parliament. The Puritans hoped he would enact reforms to purify the English church of Catholic practices. he refused to make Puritan reforms. Agreed to translate the bible to english from a protestant point of view , known as the King James Bible
Charles I
His son, took the throne. Charles always needed money, in part because he was at war with both Spain and France. Several times when Parliament refused to give him funds, he dissolved it. By 1628, Charles was forced to call Parliament again. This time it refused to grant him any money until he signed a document that is known as the Petition of Right. Charles ignored it. And dissolved the parliament
The petition of right
The king agreed not: *Imprison subjects without due cause *Levy taxes without Parliament’s consent *House soldiers in private homes *Impose martial law in peacetime
English Civil War
Charles kept ignoring the petition of right and one day the parliament didn’t wanted to go again so Charles declares them criminals he than wanted to persecute the parliament but they discovered it and the pueblo fought against him so he gets scared and scaoes to the north of aengland where he builds and army and starts the English Civil War (7 years)164-1649 (The ones who were WITH the king, royalists: Cavaliers) vs ( Anti Charles, puritans: Roundheads)
Oliver Cromwell
Puritans found a general who could win—Oliver Cromwell. In 1645, Cromwell’s New Model Army began defeating the Cavalier, they held the king prisoner. Cromwell and the Puritans brought Charles to trial for treason against Parliament. They found him guilty and sentenced him to death.
Cromwells Rule
, he abolished the monarchy and the House of Lords. He established a commonwealth, a republican form of government. Cromwell landed on Irish shores with an army and crushed the uprising. He seized the lands and homes of the Irish and gave them to English soldiers. Fighting, plague, and famine killed hundreds of thousands. In 1653, Cromwell sent home the remaining members of Parliament. wrote the first written constitution of any modern European state. This new government was called the Protectorate. Oliver Cromwell became the head of state, called the Lord Protector. Under Cromwell, the Protectorate provided for a large army and navy. He even allowed Jews to return; they had been expelled from England in 1290. Cromwell also promoted education by setting up many new schools, and he reduced punishments for minor crimes. He starts ba very strict, conservative puritan country, he prohibitted: music, traditions, christmas was prohibitted, gathering, made, a very sad this years were known as interregnum period entre reinos (1649-1660).
Charles II
When cromwell died the parliament agreed to bring the son of Charles and restarted the monarchy, he was very welcomed by the people because people wanted the music and all the live back, he is named the merry king 1660 en adelante is known as the restoration was a very cheerful person and when he comes back to england and is married to a woman who couldn give him any childs but he dies from drinking a mrecury overdosis because he had a sexually transmitted disease. He left the law of "Habeas Corpus" which means: body evidence, it means that you need proof, a guaranty for freedom
James II
Because he didn’t have any more heredrors his brother James II, he wanted to impose catholicism again and he putted catholic to high govermental jobs but the parliament didn’t wanted that and nether the people so the Parliament brings his daughter Mary who was married to the prince William of orange from the netherlands. They wanted Mary, protestant, to make an army with the man of his soldiers and James II runned away so William and Mary become the next kings. Known as Glorious Revolution
New Rules
England had become not an absolute monarchy but a constitutional monarchy, where laws limited the ruler’s power. • no suspending of Parliament’s laws; • no levying of taxes without a specific grant from Parliament; • no interfering with freedom of speech in Parliament; • no penalty for a citizen who petitions the king about grievances. William and Mary consented to all