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Organic Chemistry Week1

In English

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Sena Aysel

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organic compounds

compounds derived from living organisms contain "vital force"-the essence of life

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66 questions
Organic compounds
Compounds derived from living organisms contain "vital force"-the essence of life
Inorganic compounds
Compounds derived from minerals lacking vital force
Friedrich Wohler
He succeeded in obtain of urea from inorganic compound (ammonium cyanate) till then it was assumed that organic compound can't be obtained from inorganic compounds He obtained it with mistake
Smallest particle which can't be further divided
Positive charge mass= 1.673*10 -27kg
Negative charge mass=9.109*10 -31kg
No charge mass =1.673*10 -27kg
Biggest area of atom is
Empty because electrons move around the nucleus
Most of the mass of an atom is concentrated in
Nucleus contains
One or more positively charged protons & one or more neutrons with no electrical charge
Shells are
Negative because of electrons
One or more negatively charged
Electrons are in constant motion somewhere outside the nucleus
The number of electrons
Equal to the number of protons
Do atom has electrical charge
No atom has no overall electrical charge
By adding or removing electrons from atoms
We will obtain ions positive or negative
An atom is mostly
Free space because the volume of the nucleus and electrons outside the nucleus are extremely small compared to the overall volume of the atom
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
It is not possible to determine both the position and the momentum of an electron
Wave function
Describes the energy of an electron and the probability of finding the electron in a region around the nucleus
Atomic orbital
The probability distribution about one atomic nucleus wave function=atomic orbital
Numerical magnitudes
Positive or negative
Values of wave function equals zero (given by quantum numbers)
Atomic orbitals
S, p, d, f
Pauli exclusion principle
No two electrons can have identical quantum numbers
Each atomic orbital can have
At most two electrons
Aufbau principle
Atomic orbitals are filled with electrons from lowest potential energy to highest
Degenerate orbitals
Orbitals that have the same energy
Hunds rule
The electronic configuration with the highest multiplicity is more stable
Most unpaired spins
Electron configuration
Of an atom describes what orbitals the electrons occupy
Rules for determination an atoms electronic configuration
1. an electron always goes into the available orbital with the lowest energy 2. No more that two electrons can occupy each orbital and two electrons must be opposite spin
Core electrons
Electrons in inner shells
Valence shell
Electrons in the outermost shell
Chemical bond
The forces holding atoms together in compounds
Valence electrons
The electrons in the outer shell
Lewis dot representation of atoms
Dots around the chemical symbol of an atom represent the valence electrons
Ionic bond
Transfer of electrons from one atom to another electrostatic attraction between oppositely charger ions
Do all atoms transfer electrons from one atom to another to form ions
No, some atoms do not transfer electrons from one atom to another to form ions
Covalent bond
Consists of a pair of electrons shared between two atoms
Is a measure of tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons
Polar covalent bonds
Electronegativity differences in covalently bonded atoms results
How polarity of bond is determined
By the difference in electronegativity values
If the electronegativities are the same the bond is nonpolar and the electrons are shared equally
If the atoms have greatly differing electronegativities the bond will be
Electrostatic potential maps
Are models that show how the charge is distributed in the molecule under the map
What do the colors indicate
The distribution of charge in the molecule
Electron rich areas
Electron deficient areas-positive
Signifies no charge
Polar molecule
Is a molecule that is electrically asymmetrical, causing it to be oppositely charged at two points
The molecule possesses a
Molecular dipole
Polar bonds
Refers to a bond that shares its paired electrons unequally the bond is therefore polar in that it has slightly more positive side and a slightly more negative side
Polar molecule
Has polarity based upon a net charge caused by the physical shape and electron distribution across the entire molecule. The molecule therefore has a slightly more positive side and a slightly more negative side. Polar bonds hold polar molecules together
Lewis Octet rule
An atom is most stable if its outer shell is either filled or contains eight electrons and it has no electrons of higher energy
Formal charge
Is the difference between the number of valence electrons an atom has when it is not bonded to any other atom and the number of electrons it owns when it is bonded
Fc= computing
Number of valence e - (number of lone - pair electrons +1/2 number of bonding electrons)
What happens in formal charge for neutral molecule
The sum of the formal charges is zero.
What happens in formal charge for ion
The sum of the formal charges is equal to the charge charge of the ion
What is VSEPR and explain
Valence shell electron pair repulsion. model combines the Lewis concept of shared electron pairs and lone pair electrons with the concept of atomic orbitals and adds a third principle: the minimization of electron repulsion
Process of obtaining hybrid orbitals
But what is hybrid orbital
Hybrid orbitals are mixed orbitals that result from combining atomic orbitals