# GCSE Physics 2020-2022 OCR Gateway

## GCSE Physics

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🇬🇧 | 🇬🇧 |

What was Democritus known for? | Known for finding out particles |

What was John Dalton known for? | Known for finding out that elements are made by atoms. |

What was J.J Thomson known for? | Known for finding out electrons |

What was Ernst Rutherford known for? | Known for finding out the nucleus |

What was Niels Bohr known for? | Known for electron energy levels. |

What was James Chadwick known for? | Known for finding out the neutrons |

Size of an Atoms? | 1-10 x 10 to the power of -10 |

-What does the Nucleus contain? -What charge to they give? -What is the Size of a Nucleus? -Mass of Nucleus | -Nucleus has Protons and Neutrons. -They give out an overall Positive Charge -Its very small, 1x10 to the power of -15 -Its around 1x10 to the power of 23 [This hinges on the Element] |

Atoms joining together creates what? Difference of Size? | Molecules. Their size is Bigger than a Atom, by such a tiny amount that saying its the Size of an Atom is good Enough |

What is the Relative Mass of Electron? | -Its very small: 0.0005 grams |

What is a proton? | A tiny particle with a mass of 1 and a positive charge. |

What is a neutron? | A tiny particle with a mass of 0 and a neutral charge [0] |

What is a electron? | A tiny particle with a mass of 0 [or 1/1840] and a negative charge |

What is the mass number? | The mass number is when you add the protons and the neutrons up in the element. |

What is a Isotope? | When an atom has more or less neutrons |

What is an Ion | When an atom has more or less electrons |

Whats in a nucleus? | In the nucleus, there is only protons and neutrons. |

How big is an atom? | It is 10 x 10[-10] meters |

How do you find the Heat energy to raise the temperature? | You need to do the Specific Heat Capacity [c] x Mass [m] x The change in Temperature [()T] |

What is the formula? | Eh=cm()T |

How would you find out the mass? [or specific heat capacity etc..] | To find the mass [or others] you would need to rearrenge the formula from this, Eh=cm()T to, c=Eh/m()T. Then you would subsitue the numbers from there and you should get an answer. To see if you were correct, do the formula normally with the numbers you have and if the answer is the same as Heat Energy, its right. |

How do you find out how much energy you need to take a substance from solid to liquid [or gas to liquid etc.] | You have to do mass x Latent. |

What is the formula for q4? | The formula is E=mL. The E stands for Energy [J], the m stands for mass [kg] and the L stands for Latent [J/Kg] |

What is a physical change? | A physical change is usually when something changes state or size and can be reverasable in a substance |

What is a chemical change? | A chemical change |

Is there a link between Kinetic energy and Temperature Change? and why? | Yes. The link is that the more temperature change means that there is more heat energy coming in. Since energy cannot be destroyed nor created, its converts to Kinetic energy to try and overcome the electrostatic forces that keep the atoms in place. |

Why is there no Kinetic energy in a solid? | There is not much heat energy but there is a lot of Electrostatic forces in it so that's why the atoms can only vibrate if that. |

How do you find out Internal energy? | To find that out, you must add Kinetic energy and Potenital energy. |

What is Internal Energy? | The amount of energy stored in the atom. This does not include the energy from the substance movement |

Formula of Volume | Width x Length x Height |

Formula of Density | Mass divided by Volume |

Formula of Heat Energy being Transferred | Specific Heat Capacity x Mass x Change in Temperature |

Formula of the Specific Heat Capacity | Heat Energy divided by Mass x Change in Temperature. |

Formula of Internal Energy | Kinetic Energy + Potential Energy |

Formula of WEIGHT | Mass x Gravitational Force |

Formula of Pressure | Weight divided by Area |

Force of Constant | Pressure x Volume |

Formula of Kelvin | Temperature - 273 |

Formula of Speed | Distance [m] --[Divide]-- Time [s] |

What is the formula for Acceleration? [Non-Uniform] | Acceleration [m/s²] = Change in Velocity [m/s] ---------[Divide]----------- Time [s] |

What is the Formula for Uniform Acceleration | Final Velocity]² - [Initial Velocity]² = 2 x Acceleration x Distance [m/s]² [m/s]² [m/s²] [m] |

How to find out Change in Velocity? | Final velocity - Initial Velocity |

Formula for Gradient | Change in the Y axis --------------------------- Change in the X axis |

How to find out the Average speed | Total Distance Taken ------------------------------ Total Time taken |

What is the Formula for Newton's Second law | Force [N] = Mass [kg] x Acceleration [m/s²] |

What is the Momentum formula? | Momentum [kg m/s] = mass [kg] x velocity [m/s] |

Formula of Force with Change in Momentum in | Force [N] = Change in Momentum [kg m/s] ----------------------------------------- Time [s] |

What is the law of conservation momentum formula? | Total Momentum before = Total Momentum after |

What is the formula for the Gravity force, or Weight | Weight [N] = Mass [kg] x Gravitation Field Strength [N/kg] |

How can you work out Potential Energy? | Potential Energy [J]= Mass [kg] x Height [m] x Gravitational Field Strength [N/kg] |

What's the formula for Kinetic energy? | Kinetic Energy [J] = 0.5 x Mass [kg] x (Speed)² [m/s]² |

What is the formula for Work is Done. | Work done [J] = Force [N] x Distance [m] |

What is the formula for Power? | Power [W] = Work Done [J] --------------------- Time [s] |

What is the formula for Force Exerted by a Spring? | Force Exerted by a Spring [N] = Extension [m] x Spring Constant [N/m] |

What is the equation for the Energy Transferred in Stretching? | Energy Transferred in Stretching [J] = 0.5 x Spring Constant [N/m] x (Extension)² (m)² |

Formula of Moment | Moment of a Force [N] = Force [N] x Distance [m] |

What is the formula that Balanced Objects follow? [Like a Sea-Saw that's balancing] | Total Anti-Clockwise Moments = Total Clockwise Moments |

What's the formula for Water Pressure. [Fluid Pressure] | . Force normal to a Surface [N] Pressure [Pa] =--------------------------------------- Area of that Surface [m²] |

What happens when you try to compress a gas? | As you compress, the atoms will fight back. Since there is no change in Kinetic Energy, they will go the same speed as if nothing happens. This means there are more collisions which fights and could push back. |

What does Inverse mean? | When one does something, the other one should do the complete opposite. |

What is the rules of Constant. | The rules are that is must be balanced [P2=V2.] Another rule is that when you multiply something P1 to get P2, You must divide V1 to get V2. The final rule is that the Formula of Constant does not add in the temperature since the temperature can too affect it. |

What happens if you travel to the top of Mount Everest. | If you were at the top of Mount Everest, the pressure there for starters would be quite different as because you are 8 km away from sea level. You would also find it harder to breathe as because there is not that much atoms there since there is a bigger volume and most of it is at the bottom. |

What is the Atmosphere? | It is the surrounding and is a layer of gases. this is around a few 100km thick |

What do you use to measure Pressure? | You would commonly use Pascals [P] |

What is a Scalar? | A Scalar is a just magnitude. Eg Speed, Time |

What is a vector? | A Vector is a magntiude and direction. Eg Velocity, Displacement |

What is the formula for Speed? | Distance [m] --[Divide]-- Time [s] |

Rearrange the formula for Distance | Distance [m]= Speed [m/s] x Time [s] |

Example of the Speed equation. | A car goes 300 cenitmeters in 1 minute. Converge the units= 300 cm = 3m. 1min= 60s 3 ---- = 0.05 60 |

What is Displacement? | This measures Distance along with Direction. However it also measures from your FIRST point of measurement Eg. Dan walks 1 km left and then 1 km right. Measure the Displacement. Ans=0 started at home, ended at home |

What is Acceleration? | This is how quickly the velocity is changing. |

What can the change in velocity be? | It can be Speed or Direction. |

What is the formula for Acceleration? [Non-Uniform] | Acceleration [m/s²] = Change in Velocity [m/s] ---------[Divide]----------- Time [s] |

Rearrange the formula for Time. | Time [s] = Change in Velocity [m/s] ----------[Divide]----------- Acceleration [m/s²] |

Example of Acceleration. | Bob is in a race. He goes from 6 [m/s ] to 12 [m/s] in 2 minutes. First Check the units. 2 minutes = 120 seconds. Now do the change in velocity [12-6=6 [m/s] Now do the formula. 6 ---- = 0.05 m/s² 120 |

How to find out Change in Velocity? | You just do the Final velocity - Initial Velocity |

What is Uniform Acceleration? | This is when an object/animal travels with a constant acceleration |

What is the Formula for Uniform Acceleration | [Final Velocity]² - [Initial Velocity]² = 2 x Acceleration x Distance [m/s]² [m/s]² [m/s²] [m] |

Example of Uniform Acceleration? | Kimmy is running with a Final velocity of 19 m/s. She has been running for 0.3km with an acceleration of 6 m/s². Whats her Initial Velocity? First Converge. 0.3 km= 300m. Now get the formula f²-i²=2xAxD [19]² - [i]² = 2 x 6 x 300. i² = [2 x 6 x 300] - [19²] i² = 3239 i = 56 |

How can you find out Acceleration? [Practical] | Grab a trolley and some stopwatches along with a ramp. Measure out the Distance too between the points of interest. Those interests will be the beginning, Runway and the End. The times on the ramp will give you an Average speed on the ramp. [Distance divided by Time] and the time on the runway gives you the speed on the runway. Acceleartion can now be found as the change in velocity is going to be your speed on the ramp/runway. [Initial Velocity was 0] |

What factors affect the experiment on finding Acceleration? | Friction can slow the trolley down, Human reaction time might have delyaed the time, angles on the ramp. |

Any solutions to those factors? | Makes sure the surface is clear and smooth, Light gates give a more accurate precise result and make sure you measure the angle of the ramp first. |

What do Distance Time graphs show you? | It shows how far something has travelled. Time is on the x axis. Distance is on the y axis |

What does the parts on a certain graph show | Gradient shows the Speed Flat sections show its not moving Steeper graphs show the object is going faster Curves are Acceleration Steep curves are Speeding up Levelling off curves are Slowing down |

How can you find the Speed [Gradient] of the Graph? | You do the Change in the Y axis --------------------------- This is between two points in a straight line Change in the X axis If its curved, you do a Tangent, then measure |

How to find out the Average speed in a graph. | You do the Total Distance taken ------------------------------ Total Time taken |

What is a Velocity time Graph used for? | It is used for finding Acceleration |

What are the properties of a Velocity time graph | Gradient = Acceleration Flat sections = Steady Velocity Steeper graphs = Greater Acceleration Uphill sections = Acceleration Downhill sections = Deceleration Curve = Changing Acceleration Area underneath the line = Distance travelled |

How to find out Acceleration? | You do the Change in Y axis ---------------------------- Again in two points. [eg 2 s -6 s] Change in X axis |

How to find out Distance? | First count all the squares underneath the graph OR just divide the graph into Triangles and Squares and then find out the area Then you find how much distance is in one square by looking at the axis If Time goes up by 1 every square and Velocity goes up 0.2, One square = 0.2 meters. Then do: Total numbers of squares x 0.2 And you have Distance |

What are Contact and Non-Contact Forces? | A Contact force has two things Touching [Pushing or Pulling] Non-Contact Forces has two things not touching |

Examples of Contact and Non-Contact Forces | Friction and Air Resistance are examples of Contact Forces Electrostatics and Gravitational Forces are not examples of Contact Forces |

What is a Interaction pair? | This is a pair of equal and opposite forces acting on two thing. Also known as a example of Newton's 3rd Law |

Give an Example of a Interaction pair with a wall and yourself? | If you push against it, the wall will push back, which will lead to you not getting through. The force on the person and the wall equal and opposite |

What is the Resultant Force and give an Example? | The Resultant Force is the overall Force on a object. If a ball falls with a Weight of 16N but has Air Resistance of 4N, The Resultant Force would be Weight with a Magnitude of 12N meaning the ball would go downwards |

Is Force a Scalar or a Vector | They are a Vector. They have Magnitude and Direction |

What is a zero resultant force meaning? Give an Example of a banana and a chair. | This means the Forces are Balanced out. The Banana is on a Chair. Its Weight is 7N but the non-contact force is also 7N. 7-7=0. |

What is a Non-Zero Resultant Force. Give an example of a car accelerating. | This means the forces are unbalanced. A car accelerating means its Thrust will be greater then the Drag equalling acceleration. However the weight and the non-contact is still balanced, so the car is not flying/sinking |

What can Scale Drawings give you? | It can give you the Resultant Force |