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what is physiology

the study of how living organisms function

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Physiology - Details



151 questions
What is physiology
The study of how living organisms function
What is pathophysiology?
When normal function has gone wrong
What is comparative physiology?
Comparing across species
What is the dependent variable and where on the graph
The variable that responds to the change, y axis
What is the independent variable and where on the graph
The variable that the researcher controls or changes to affect the dependent, x axis
What is invitro
In a culture dish
What is in vivo
In a living creature
What is the process of developing drugs and treatments
In vitro first, secondly in vivo, then clinical trials
What is muscle tissue
Tissue specialised to generate mechanical force for contraction
What is nervous tissue
Tissue specialised for initiating, integrating and conducting electrical signals
What is epithelial tissue
Specialised cells that form membranes which cover body surfaces and line the inside of hollow organs and glands
What is connective tissue and give one example
Specialised to contain large amounts of extracellular material. blood
What are the 3 types of muscle tissye
Skeletel, cardiac and smooth
What does skeletal muscle tissue do
Contraction under voluntary control, produce movements of limbs
What are cardiac muscle
Interselected discs couple cardiac muscle cells mechanically and electrically
Where and what do smooth muscle do
In the walls of tubes in the body and involuntary contractions
What are glial cells
Supporting cells that do not conduct a nerve impulse but are essential for neuron function
What is simple epithelium made of
Single cell thick tissue
What is stratified epithelium made of
Thicker, consisting of multiple layer of cells
What is stratified epithelium made of
Thicker, consisting of multiple layer of cells
What is cuboidal
Cube shaped
What is columnar
Column shaped, elongated
Where do epithelial cells rest
On extracellular protein layer called the basement membrane
What do connective tissue cells do
Connect, anchor and support the structures of the body
What are the 4 primary types of connective tissue
Connective tissue proper, cartilage, bone, blood
What is connective tissue proper composed of
Protein fibres and gel like ground substance
3 examples of connective tissue proper
Loose connective tissue, dense regular connective tissue and adipose tissue
What are cartilage composed of
Cells called chondrocytes surrounded by a semi solid ground substance
What is bone composed of
Cells called osteoblasts trap mineral salts
What is the structure of plasma membrane
Selectively permeable, gives form and separates from the external environment
What is the structure of cell organelles
Membrane bound compartments that perform the function
What is integral structure
Closely associated with the membrane lipids, amphipathic , most span the entire membrane
What is peripheral structure
Do not associate with the non polar regions of the lipid in the interior membrane, surface bound to polar regions
What are membrane junctions
Junctions that physically join cells
What are desmosomes
A membrane junction that serve as anchoring points for cadherins
What are tight junctions
Two adjacent plasma membranes joining together so that no extracellular space remains between them
What do gap junctions consist of and what do they do
Protein channels and linking the cytosis of adjacent cells in muscle cells of the heart
What barrier surrounds the nucleus and what is it made of
The nuclear envelope, composed of two lipid bilayers with nuclear pores
What happens in the smooth er
Production of lipid based molecules
What happen in the rough er
Protein synthesis that are after secreted by the cell or distributed to other cell organelles
What does the golgi apparatus do
Packaging molecules alled vesicles and can be transported to the cell membrane
What are endosomes
Membrane bound vesicular and tubular structures that lie between the plasma membrane and the golgi apparatus
What are the endosomes function
Sorting, modifying ad directing vesicular traffic in cells
What are lysosomes and whats their function
Spherical organelle surrounded by a single membrane and act to break down bacteria and the debris from dead cells that have been engulfed by a cell
What are peroxisomes
Moderately dense oval bodies enclosed by a single membrane
What are vaults
Cytoplasmic structures that are made of proteins and a type of RNA called vault RNA (vRNA)
What is a cytoskeleton
A filamentous network that is associated with processes that maintain and change cell shape and produce cell movements
What are 3 classes of cytoskeleton
Actin filaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules
What are actin filaments composed of and what do they do
Monomoers of the protein G-actin and determining cell shape
What are intermediate filaments made of and what do they do
Twisted strands of several different proteins including keratin, desmin and lamin. Contributes to cell shape and help anchor the nucleus
What are microtubules
Hollow tubes about 25 nanometer in diameter
What is cilia
Hair like extensions on the surfaces of most cells, have a central core of microtubules
What do cilia do
The movements of cilia help propel the content of the organ along the surface of the epithelium
What are solutes
Substances that dissolve in water
What are solvents
The liquids that solutes dissolve in
How are solutions formed
Solutes dissolving in solvent
What is solute concentration
The amount of solute present in a unit volume of solution
What is the formula for molar solution
Molar solution (M) = moles solute / litre solution
How much molar solution = litres
1M solution = 1mol/litre
What is molal solution
Moles solute / kg solvent
What is the molecular weight of a molecule equal to
The sum of atomic mass of all atoms in the molecule
What is formula for pH
PH = - log [H+] or pH = log 1 / H+ concentration
What is an acidic solution
A solution that has more H+ ions than OH- ions
What is an alkaline solution
A solution that has more OH- ions than H+ ions
What is a base
Any substance that can accept a hydrogen ion
What are buffers
A system of molecules and ion that act to prevent changes in hydrogen concentration.
What is Pa and pgh
Pa is atmospheric pressure, p is density, g is acceleration due to gravity, and h is depth
What is flow
The volume of liquid moved per unit time
What is resistance
How difficult it is for the fluid to flow between to points
What are the 3 factors that influence resistance
Viscosity of fluid, length of tube, inner radius of tube
What is η, L and r
Viscosity, length, inner radius
What does body fluid refer to
Watery solution of dissolved substances in the body
What is the extracellular fluid
The fluid in the blood and in spaces surrounding the cells
What is pasma
Fluid portion of blood
What is the interstitual fluid
75-80% of fluid that lies around and between cells
What is the formula for extracellular fluid
= sum of the plasma and interstitual fluid volumes
What is intracellular fluid
The fluid located inside the cells and accounts for 67% of all fluid in the body
What is simple diffusion
The movement of molecules from one location to another
What is the second law of thermodynamics
A closed system will always tend towards maximum entropy or disorder
What is flux
The amount of material crossing a surface
What is net flux
The difference between the 2 one-way fluxes and the net flux will reach zero at diffusion equilibrium
What does the net flux depend on
Temperature, mass, surface area and the medium