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Psychology (Critical Thinking)

In English

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Sarah Firyaal

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What is Conservatism? (Criteria of Adequacy)

When choosing the hypothesis that fits best with ESTABLISHED BELIEFS

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72 questions
What is Conservatism? (Criteria of Adequacy)
When choosing the hypothesis that fits best with ESTABLISHED BELIEFS
What is Simplicity? (COA)
When choosing the hypothesis that makes the FEWEST ASSUMPTIONS
What is Scope? (COA)
When choosing the hypothesis that EXPLAINS and PREDICTS the MOST DIVERSE PHENOMENA
What is fruitfulness? (COA)
When choosing the hypothesis that makes the MOST SUCCESSFUL NOVEL PREDICTIONS
What is Testability? (COA)
When able to PREDICT something MORE than what is predicted by the BACKGROUND THEORY ALONE
What are necessary truths?
No situations in which they would be false
What are necessary falsehoods?
No situations in which they would be true
What is a paradigm shift?
Where the scientific community is forced to abandon the old paradigm and adopt a new one
What is a possibility?
A thing that may happen or be the case/ a thing that may be chosen or done out of several possible alternatives
What is a plausibility?
Seeming reasonable or probable
What is reality?
The state of things as they actually exist, as opposed to an idealistic or notional idea of them
What are anomalies?
Phenomena that don't seem to obey no laws
What is ESP?
Extrasensory Perception
What does 'logically impossible' mean?
Whatever is logically impossible 'cannot exist'
What are the 3 'Laws of Thought'?
Law of Noncontradiction, Law of Identity and Law of Excluded Middle
What is the 'Law of Noncontradiction'?
Nothing can both have a property and lack it at the same time (A is A and A is not A)
What is the 'Law of Identity'?
Everything is identical to itself (A is A, A is not B)
What is the 'Law of Excluded-Middle'?
For any particular property, everything either has it or lacks it (Either A or Not A)
What is 'logic'?
Logic is the study of correct thinking and good reasoning
Why is it important to know scientific laws?
Allows us to 'understand' why things happen and 'predict' and 'control' what happens.
What is 'technological impossibility'?
If it is currently beyond our capabilities to accomplish
What is to 'precognize an event'?
To know what will happen before it actually does
What is the 'principle of causality'?
That an effect cannot precede(come before) its cause
How does 'Logic' help us?
It tells us how people 'should reason' if they want to avoid error and falsehood.
What is Criteria of Adequacy used for?
To infer to the best explanation and determine how well a hypotheses accomplishes the goal of increasing our understanding in an effort to systematise and unify our knowledge
How are hypotheses useful?
Produces an understanding by systematising and unifying our knowledge by bringing order and harmony to facts that seem disjointed or unrelated