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Respiratory System and Disorders


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Respiratory System and Disorders


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[Front]


What is internal respiration?
[Back]


Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide at the cellular level

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Respiratory System and Disorders - Details

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What is internal respiration?
Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide at the cellular level
What are the 3 subdivisions of the pharynx?
1. Nasopharynx 2. Oropharynx 3. Laryngopharynx
What is the purpose of the epiglottis?
To protect the larynx when swallowing
What is the purpose of cilia in the trachea?
To sweep debris upward towards the nasal cavity
The trachea divides into the:
Right and left bronchi
Describe the lungs:
Large, paired, spongy, cone-shaped
What do chemoreceptors do?
Modify respiratory rates (when stimulated by increased levels of carbon dioxide, decrease blood oxygen, increased blood acidity)
What is the function of the respiratory system?
Gas exchange at the alveolus-capillary level
List some signs and symptoms of hypoxia:
Anxiety, restlessness Disorientation Vertigo Pallor Cyanosis
What is vital capacity?
The volume of air that can be exhaled completely and slowly after a maximum inhalation
When can a person eat after a bronchoscopy?
When the gag reflex returns; usually 2 hours
What does Pa02 represent?
The amount of oxygen dissolved in plasma (expressed as millimeters of mercury)
What does Sa02 refer to?
The amount of oxygen bound to hemoglobin binding sites, compared to the amount of oxygen the hemoglobin could carry, expressed as a percentage
What do the lungs do during metabolic acidosis?
"Blow off" carbon dioxide to raise pH
How are ABG's obtained from the patient?
Heparinized needle withdraws 3-5 mL of arterial blood from radial artery
How are the gas and Ph levels preserved after an ABG specimen is taken?
Place capped syringe over crushed ice and water; send to lab immediately
What do the lungs do during metabolic alkalosis?
Retain carbon dioxide to lower pH
What is the underlying cause of epistaxis?
Congestion of nasal membranes leading to capillary rupture
Otits media symptoms occur when:
Eustachian tubes are occluded
Which products might produce a "rebound" effect on those with allergic rhinitis?
Over the counter decongestants (Robitussin, Actifed, Triaminic)
What is hypoapnea?
Abnormally shallow and slow respirations
What is the function of an nCPAP?
To maintain positive pressure in the airway during inspiration and expiration to prevent airway collapse.
Why are hot liquids and foods avoided after a tonsillectomy?
They cause vasodilation, which leads to bleeding
The Legionella microbe can progress into which 2 forms?
1. Influenza 2. Legionnaire's disease
How is SARS spread?
Close contact between people, via droplets in the air
When can a patient with SARS return to work?
10 days after fever has resolved, and symptoms are improving or absent
Initial symptoms of inhalation anthrax resemble ________.
The common cold; minus thin, clear nasal exudate
What is TB infection?
Mycobacteria in the tissue of a host who is free of signs and symptoms; antibodies against mycobacteria are present
Treatment for TB usually consists of a combination of how may drugs?
4 drugs; often include isoniazid, rifampin, pyrazinamide
AFB precautions include what kind of isolation room?
Negative air pressure; air flows into, rather than out of the room
What is pneumonia often caused by?
Aspiration of infected materials into the distal bronchioles and alveoli.