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Rules of the Air TT


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What are Transition Levels?
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These are the levels based on varying altitudes. As the aircraft climbs or descends They are due to the required settings on the aircraft altimeter. when and aircraft is ascending thru 4,100 ft., the Q.N.H. must be changed on the altimeter from the local setting into the standard international setting f 29.92 INS Hg or 1013.25 millibars. In Trinidad and Tobago this altitude of 4,100 feet is known as the transition altitude. Aircraft descending thru 5,500 feet which is also known as FL55 within Trinidad and Tobago must change their altimeter setting from the international std. of 29.92 to the current local Q.N.H. setting. This FL55 is known as the transition level. It then stands to reason between 4,100 feet and 5,500 feet. There is a layer of airspace; this layer is known as the transition layer.

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Rules of the Air TT - Details

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What are Transition Levels?
These are the levels based on varying altitudes. As the aircraft climbs or descends They are due to the required settings on the aircraft altimeter. when and aircraft is ascending thru 4,100 ft., the Q.N.H. must be changed on the altimeter from the local setting into the standard international setting f 29.92 INS Hg or 1013.25 millibars. In Trinidad and Tobago this altitude of 4,100 feet is known as the transition altitude. Aircraft descending thru 5,500 feet which is also known as FL55 within Trinidad and Tobago must change their altimeter setting from the international std. of 29.92 to the current local Q.N.H. setting. This FL55 is known as the transition level. It then stands to reason between 4,100 feet and 5,500 feet. There is a layer of airspace; this layer is known as the transition layer.
What Distress signals, whether used together or separately, mean that grave and imminent danger threatens and immediate assistance is requested
A signal made by radiotelegraphy or by any other signaling method consisting of the group SOS (…___... in the Morse Code). ii. A signal sent by radiotelephony consisting of the spoken word MAYDAY; iii. Rockets or shells throwing red lights, fired one at a time at short intervals; and iv. A parachute flare showing a red light;
What signals, used either together or separately, means that an aircraft has a very important message to transmit concerning the safety of a ship, aircraft or other vehicle, or of some person on board or within sight?
A signal made by radiotelegraphy or by any other signaling method consisting of the group XXX; and ii. a signal sent by radiotelephony consisting of the spoken words PAN - PAN, PAN-PAN, PAN-PAN
What is the Semi –circular rule?
For VFR flight between 3,000 feet and 20,000 feet, the semi-circular rule applies and is provided so that aircraft can maintain a minimum distance of 1,000 feet vertically. From 0000 to 1790 Magnetic - ODD THOUSAND plus 500 feet e.g. 3,500 feet, 5,500 feet, 7,500 feet, until 19,500 feet From 1800 to 3590 Magnetic - EVEN THOUSAND plus 500 feet e.g. 4,500 feet, 6,500 feet, 8,500 feet until 18,500 feet
What is an A.I.P. - The Aeronautical Information Publication & what does it contain?
The AlP consolidates all information that would be of interest to pilots and navigators. contains information on aerodromes, communication, meteorology, rules of the air and air traffic services, facilitation, search and rescue, aeronautical charts, licensing, registration, airworthiness and airmanship
What are NOTAMS - Notices to Airmen ?
Notices to Airmen deal mostly with matters of an urgent nature such as danger and restricted areas, obstructions, airport construction, changes of navigation and control procedures, the knowledge of which is essential to pilots. Previously two classes existed but only CLASS 1 NOTAMS are now use
What are INFORMATION CIRCULARS & AVIATION NOTICES ?
INFORMATION CIRCULARS & AVIATION NOTICES are distributed by mail to advice pilots of changes to procedures and to important information of a general administrative or advisory nature.
What are PIREPS - Pilot in Flight Reports ?
Pilot in Flight Reports are dispatched by pilots if hazardous weather is encountered during their flight. The report is called in to the tower reporting locations and type of disturbances.
Who has Access to and movement on the maneuvering area ?
Person and vehicles shall not go into the maneuvering area of an airport without prior permission and then only under conditions specified by the authorities.
How do you indicate Acknowledgement of Tower Light Signals ?
DAY - Flight rock wings - Ground move ailerons or rudders NIGHT - Flight turn on and off landing lights twice or nav - Ground same as above
What is an Aerodrome?
An aerodrome means a defined area on land or water, including buildings, installations and equipment, intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft.
What is the Aerodrome Traffic Zone?
Aerodrome traffic zone - airspace extending from the aerodrome to a height of 2,000 feet (600m) and 3,000 yards (2700m) of its boundaries
A person shall not operate an aircraft in aerobatic flight
A) over any city, town or settlement b) over an open air assembly of persons c) within the lateral boundaries of the surface areas of Class B, C, D or E airspace designated for an aerodrome, d) below an altitude of one thousand, five hundred feet above the land or sea surface; or e) when the flight visibility is less than 3 statute miles.
What is an Airplane?
Airplane - means a power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft, deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces which remain fixed under given conditions of flight.
What is an Aircraft?
Aircraft - means any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth's surface
A pilot of an aircraft operated on or in the vicinity of an aerodrome shall:
A) observe other aerodrome traffic for the purpose of avoiding collision; and b) Conform with or avoid the pattern of traffic formed by other aircraft in operation
When approaching to land at an aerodrome without an operating control tower, each pilot of an airplane shall:
Make all turns to the left or shall comply, with any traffic patterns established by the civil aviation authority having jurisdiction over that aerodrome
When departing an aerodrome without an operating control tower, a pilot of an aircraft shall :
Make all turns to the left or shall comply with any traffic patterns established by the civil aviation authority having jurisdiction over that aerodrome
A pilot of an aircraft shall land and take-off into the wind unless :
Safety, the runway configuration or traffic considerations determine that a different direction is preferable.
Air Traffic control clearance means
Authorization by an air traffic control unit for an aircraft to proceed under conditions specified by that unit.
What is an Alternative Aerodrome In the event that Piarco runway is closed to VFR?
In the event that Piarco runway is closed to VFR, an alternate aerodrome is the Camden base, located about 1.5 nautical miles northeast of Couva
What are Anti Collision light ?
Anti Collision light a light fixed to the exterior of an aircraft so that the aircraft may be readily detected by pilots of distant aircraft.
When two aircraft are approaching head on, or approximately so, what should happen?
When two aircraft are approaching head on, or approximately so, the pilot of each aircraft shall alter course to the right
What types of circuits are enforced in Trinidad & Tobago?
In Trinidad, left hand circuits are in force, and in Tobago right hand circuits are in force
What is Cloud ceiling ?
Cloud ceiling - the vertical distance from the aerodrome to the lowest level of cloud visible which is sufficient enough to obscure more than half the sky. It can be more that one type of cloud and the meteorological terminology are a) FEW: 1-2 0KTAS b) SCATTERED (SKC) : 3-4 OKTAS c) BROKEN (BKN) : 5-7 0KTAS d) OVERCAST (OVC): 8 0KTAS
Failure of Navigation Lights
If any of the above lights fall and it cannot be replaced or repaired immediately, the aircraft shall land as soon as practicable unless authorized by ATC to continue
An aircraft which is on final approach to land or landing shall
Have the right of way over all other aircraft in flight, on the ground or in the water
What is Instrument meteorological conditions (IMC)
Weather conditions prohibiting flight in accordance with visual flight rules.
What should the pilot of an aircraft which does not have right of way in flight do
Shall give way to an aircraft which has the right of way and shall not pass over or under the other aircraft or cross ahead of it unless passing well clear of it, taking into account the effect of aircraft wake turbulence.
A pilot of an aircraft in flight that has the right of way
Has the right to proceed on the same heading and at the same speed before any other aircraft.
When does an aircraft have the right-of-way over all other air traffic?
An aircraft in distress or an aircraft that is compelled to land
Where aircraft of different categories are converging in flight, the following right of way rules shall apply:
(a) A balloon has the right of way over any other category of aircraft. (b) A glider has the right of way over an airship, airplane or rotorcraft; and (c) An airship has the right-of-way over an airplane or rotorcraft.
An aircraft towing or refueling another aircraft has the right- of-way over
All other engine-driven aircraft, except aircraft in distress.
Where aircraft are approaching each other head-on or approximately so
The pilot of each aircraft shall alter course to the right.
An aircraft, while on final approach to land or while landing, has the right-of-way
Over other aircraft in flight or operating on the surface
An aircraft taxiing on the maneuvering area of an aerodrome shall
Give way to aircraft taking off or about to takeoff.
In case of danger of collision between two aircraft taxiing on the movement area of the aerodrome, the following shall apply:
(a) Where two aircraft are approaching head on or approximately so, each shall stop or where practicable alter its course to the right so as to keep well clear (b) Where two aircraft are on a converging course, the one which has the other on its right shall give way (c) An aircraft which is being overtaken by another aircraft shall have the right of way and the overtaking aircraft shall keep well clear of the other aircraft (d) an aircraft taxiing in the maneuvering area shall stop and hold at all taxi-holding positions unless otherwise authorized by the aerodrome control tower; and (e) an aircraft taxiing on the maneuvering area shall stop and hold at lighted stop bars and may proceed further when the lights are switched off.
A flying machine when flying at night shall display lights as follows:
A) An anti-collision light, that is, rotating beacon and steady lights, that I, navigation light b) the steady lights steady lights shall comprise * a green light from dead ahead through an angle of 110° to the right or starboard side of at least 5 candle power. * a red light dead ahead through an angle of 110° to the left or port side of at least 5 candle power * a white light from dead astern through an angle of 70° to either side of at least 3 candle power
The steady lights steady lights of an aircraft shall comprise
* a green light from dead ahead through an angle of 110° to the right or starboard side of at least 5 candle power. * a red light dead ahead through an angle of 110° to the left or port side of at least 5 candle power * a white light from dead astern through an angle of 70° to either side of at least 3 candle power.
All aircraft in flight shall display
(a) anti-collision lights, to attract attention to the aircraft at all times, and (b) navigation lights intended to indicate the relative path of the aircraft to an observer, from sunset to sunrise or during any other period specified by the appropriate authority
No aircraft shall fly over any congested area of a city, town or settlement below
A) An altitude allowing for continuation of flight or an emergency landing without undue hazard to persons or property on the surface. b) An altitude of 1,000ft (300m) above the highest obstacle within a horizontal radius of six hundred meters of the aircraft where the aircraft is operated over any congested area of a city, town or settlement or over any open-air assembly of persons; c) An altitude of five hundred feet above the surface where an aircraft is operated over un-congested areas, except over open water or sparsely populated areas where the aircraft shall not be operated closer than one hundred and fifty meters to any person, vessel, vehicle or structure.
Maneuvering area
The part of the aerodrome provided for the movement of aircraft: a) from the point of embarkation to the point of take-off b) from the point of landing to the point of disembarkation
A person shall not taxi an aircraft on the movement area of an aerodrome unless
The person at the controls- a) has been authorized by the operator, the lessee or a designated agent b) is fully competent to taxi the aircraft; c) is qualified to use the radio where radio communications are required; and d) has received instruction from a component person in respect of aerodrome layout and where appropriate, information on- I. routes; II. signs: III. marking; IV. lights; V. Air Traffic Control signals, and instructions, phraseology and procedures e) is able to conform to the operational standards required for safe aircraft movement at the aerodrome
Minimum fuel supply for VFR flights: A person shall not commence a flight in an airplane under Visual Flight Rules unless
Considering the wind and weather forecast conditions, there is enough fuel to fly to the first point of intended landing and assuming normal cruising speed- a) for flights during the day, for at least thirty minutes thereafter; or b) for flights at night, for at least forty-five minutes thereafter; and c) for international flights, for at least an additional fifteen per cent of the total flight time calculated for cruise flight.
If you lose two way communication with Piarco tower, what do you do?
At first sign of communication loss on normal transmitting frequency (118.10 MHz), switch frequency to another Piarco frequency such 121.90 MHz. if there is no response, proceed to check all radio wire connections for apparent physical damage. If un-repairable damage is found, or, after checking the radio is not responding then transmit ‘blindly’ twice on 118.10 MHz. E.G. Pilot: ‘Piarco tower, this is 9Y-TJU transmitting blind frequency 118.10, Present location 3 miles south of Chaguanas at 2,000 feet heading 070, estimating field at 50’ Repeat underlined section The pilot the proceeds to the field for a right base turn left upwind at 1,000 feet. Proceed to fly parallel to the runway until just pass the tower and then make a left turn crosswind perpendicular to the runway. Continue left turn to enter left downwind and look at tower for light signs. If no signs are given on first pass downwind, proceed left turn overhead threshold point and repeat previous circuit. On left downward again look for light signs. When sign is given, firstly acknowledge the sign by rocking wings and then proceed according to sign instruction