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Weimar republic revision

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Who was the new chancellor?

Friedrich Ebert

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Weimar republic revision - Details



87 questions
What party was Ebert from ?
The social democratic party (SPD)
What does Ebert do in January 1919?
Sacks Eichhorn (cheif of berlin) who was popular amongst workers, so they protested
Who were the spartacists?
A left-wing party
Who led the spartacists?
Rosa Luexemburg and Karl Liekknect
What did the spartacists want?
To establish communism in Germany and destroy the Weimar republic.
What happened on the 6th of January 1919?
100,000 workers match to protest and took over government newspaper and telegraph.
What was wrong with the spartacits uprising?
They didn't get the support they needed from the other left-wing parties
What did Ebert do to stop the Spartacists?
Ordered right-wing soldiers into the Freikorps units. (ex-army men)
What happened on the 15th of January 1919?
Rosa and Karl were murdered, so the movement had no leaders which wounded them.
What happened for the next 4 months with the Freikorps ?
They crushed all left-wing uprisings, killed thousands of communist supporters.
Why was it a risk for Ebert to use Freikorps?
The government was now in the hands of the army and the Freikorps, they were not loyal
What is the stab in the back myth?
The army felt that they were stabbed in the back by weak politicians because they thought that they have never lost the war.
One reason why the Germans thought they were going to get an easier treaty?
The Kaiser was gone and they had a new democratic government
One reason why the Germans thought they were going to get an easier treaty?
The new republic needed support, they assumed the allies would help them.
One reason why the Germans thought they were going to get an easier treaty?
Wilson believed in a fair treaty, he believed that Germany to not have a too harsh treaty
One reason why the Germans thought they were going to get an easier treaty?
Germans believed all countries should be blamed for the war, Germany believed they were forced into war
Why was the government in Weimar?
Berlin was too violent
What happened on November 9th 1918
The Kaiser abdicated and left to Netherlands.
Why was Ebert not enough to change the republic?
All of the Kaiser's people were left in the government and they didn't want the new government and the idea of democracy
Who didn't agree with the new government?
The rich people didn't agree with the new idea and that's a problem and the Freikorps weren't on board with the idea
What was the president in charge of?
Controls the military, appoints judges in court, choosing the chancellor
What is the chancellor in charge of?
Chooses Government ministers and the Reichstag
What is the Reichstag?
The parliament, proportional repersentations
What was the red rising?
Workers strike in the Ruhr, 50,000 to 80,000 left-wing workers. The largest armed worker uprising in the nations history.
How long did the Ruhr uprising last?
13th March - 2nd April 1920
What did the aftermath of the treaty do to the Kaap Putsch ?
They hated the treaty and they blamed the Weimer government and they hated the tightest restrictions. Especially the army
What happened March 1920?
Freikorps and army units, led by Wolfgang Kapp, marched in Berlin and declared and new government.
Why was the Kaap Putsch bad for the Weimer Government?
It made them look stupid, that an old army with guns to take over the government
How did Ebert take action against the friekorps uprising?
He asked the workers to go on strike, which they did because they don't want anymore violence. And seeing as Berlin was a powerhouse for products, this wounded the Freikorps idea and then the government brought reinforcements.
Strengths of the Weimar constitution?
All Germans had equal rights, proportional representation, each state can keep their own traditions
Weakness of the Weimar constitution?
Had many enemies, proportional representation meant that small parties could, president has to much power, could be hostile to the rational government.
What was wrong with proportional representation?
It took a long time to make a decisions, and party that made similar values made coalitions
What was article 48?
Emergency decisions, without the Reichstag
What was article 25?
They could dissolve the Reichstag
What was the economic impact of the Treaty on Germany?
Found it hard to pay the reparations, and they ran out money and they started to print more money, which caused hyperinflation.
Why did the French invade the Ruhr ?
Germany was not keeping up with paying goods like coal, so they invaded the Ruhr were most of the goods and factories were.
How did respond to the invasion of the Ruhr?
Told the workers to on a strike, passive resistance which meant the French didn't have much to take.
How did the French respond to the strike of workers?
Brought in their own workers but also ended up killing 9 people
How did hyperinflation have an affect on people?
All their live savings where now worthless and now it meant nothing
How did Hitler take over the NSDAP?
He kicked out the other leader, and he gained a lot of popularity that allowed him to climb the ranks
Why was Hitler famous for his speeches?
They were very persuasive and people (even if they didn't support him) came to see him speak because they were interesting.
What was the 25 point programme?
It mixed together all beliefs of other parties and cultures, so this meant that someone at least agreed with at least one point. Everyone agreed that they should abolish the Treaty.
Why did the wealthy people support the NSDAP?
The wealthy people thought that they could control Hitler with their money, and Hitler let them believe that so they funded the party.
Why did Hitler want to take over the government in Bavaria?
To show that he had enough power (but he didnt) and he attacked Bavaria because it would launch a larger revolution on the Weimar republic
Why did the Munich Putsch not work?
The government fought back and they were too weak and too small.
What violence happened Munich Putsch?
16 Nazi's were killed and Hitler was arrested.
What was Hitler accused of in his trial?
He was accused of high treason
What did Hitler do in the trial?
He used it as an opportunity to make his speeches, he treated it like a publicity stunt
What was Hitler's sentence?
5 years in Landsberg prison, which was a luxury prison
Why did Hitler get such a light sentence?
He managed to justify his actions as a defense to communists. The guards in prison obeyed him and he used his time to write the book 'Mein Kampf'
Who was Joseph Goebbels?
He was the Nazi party propaganda director, he played into the publics emotions with the propaganda.
What did Stresemann do for the economy?
Burnt all the money from hyperinflation that was worthless and started a new currency
What was the Dawes plan? And what did it do for Germany?
A loan from the US of 800 million marks, it help them recover their economy
Why was the Dawes plan a 'failure'?
They were in debt to America, and they could ask for the money back at any time, especially with the great depression.
What happened to production in 1928?
Production returned to pre-WW1 levels, making Germany the 2nd largest economy.
What was a still a problem with unemployment?
Still 1 million people were unemployed and it rose in 1928
What did they do for the working class?
There were higher wages for the working class
What was the agriculture problem?
Germany was spending more money on imports rather than exports, they should have put money into help with farming seeing as hunger was still a problem.
Why did the public not like Germany joining the League?
They were still upset over the Treaty of Versailles, and the fact that they had lost the war, it made them look weak.
What was the Locarno pact?
To secure the boarders, especially with France Demilitarize the Rhineland And join the League of nations
Why was the Locarno pact a failure?
Territorial loss of land, made Germany look weak
What was the culture like for women and sexuality?
It was far more developed with these ideas, like woman could vote, unlike the UK at the time
What was the theme of the new German art?
War and scenes witnessed at war and politics
What was a 'failure' with the culture change
Outside of the big cities like Berlin, it wasn't excepted because it wasn't traditional, especially with the older generation and the church
After the Munich Putsch what did Hitler learn?
He could not take it by force, he would have to work within the democratic system to take power
Who did Hitler target with propaganda and why?
The farmers because they were most hurt by the government's policies and it was the NSDAP and it had a sense of socialism
How did the nazi party use the radio?
They used the radio to persuade people and meet the masses quickly
Who were in the SS?
Unemployed people and ex army men from the war
What happened in the vote for 1928?
Got only 3% of the votes, smaller than the communist party
Why were the majority of the workers looking to support left?
Their wages has risen during the golden years and they weren't interested in a far right-wing party
What did Stressmann do for the foreign policy?
Dawes plan helped them get along with Britain and France again France withdrawal from the Ruhr, the young plan The locrano pact, get on good terms with France especially
Why did Germany suffer from hyperinflation, 2 reasons?
Reperations of the treaty of Versailles and worker strike in the Ruhr