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level: Level 1

Questions and Answers List

level questions: Level 1

used by government agencies and private research organizations. Grouped by interests such as geography, school district, etc.Cluster sampling
a value or numerical measurement that can be added or ranked (height, weight, rank)quantitative variable
a quality that cannot be measured or ranked (color, gender, nationality)qualitative variable
data consisting of names, labels and categories (not ordered from smallest to largest)nominal
data arranged in order (differences between values that either cannot be determined or are meaningless (best, worst, smallest, tallest)ordinal
data with numerical value that can be placed in order. differences between values are meaningful and there is no true zero (5 more than or 12 less than)interval
data arranged in order with differences between. data values and ratio of data values are meaningfulratio
values that can be counteddiscrete
infinite numbers of values between any two specific valuescontinuous
involves methods of organizing, picturing, summarizing and presentation of data. Ex. ages, incomes, etc.descriptive
involves methods of using information from a sample to draw conclusions regarding the population. this also involves performing estimations and testing hypotheses, determining relationships among variables and making predictions (uses probability-chance of an event occuring)inferential
used in inferential statistics as a decision-making process for evaluation claims about a population, based on information obtained from sampleshypothesis testing
the science of conducting studies to collect, organize, analyze and draw conclusions from datastatistics
people or objects in a studyindividuals
consists of all subjects that are being studied (all people in the sample group)population
when a variable is manipulated to produce observable effectsexperimental study
the variable being manipulated by researchers in the studyindependent variable
the variable which is influenced by the manipulation of the independent variabledependent variable
group not exposed to independent variablecontrol group
when subjects who knew they were participating in an experiment changed their normal behavior in ways that altered the experiment's resultsHawthorne effect
an unplanned variable that influences the results of the experimentconfounding variable
groups or classes within a population that share a common characteristicstratified sampling
Data obtained by numbers. Each member of the population has a number, from which researchers then select every kth subject. Ex: the study group was picked from every 4th member within a population of 200.systematic sampling
the researcher uses subjects that are readily availableconvenience sampling
the researcher serves what is happening or has happened in the past and tries to draw conclusions. this occurs in a natural setting with no manipulation on the researcher's part.observational study
the organization of raw data in table form, using classes and frequenciesfrequency distribution
raw data values that are placed in a quantitative or qualitative categoryclass
the number taken from subtracting the lower limit of a class from the upper limit (high of 30, low of twenty, 30 - 20 = width of 10)class width
boundaries used to separate classes so that there are no gaps in the frequency distribution. Ex the class limits are 30-40, making the boundaries 29.5 and 40.5class boundaries
obtained by adding the lower and upper boundaries and dividing by 2class midpoint
the use of a probability device to assign subjects to treatmentrandomization
a survey conducted on the full set of observation objects belonging to a given population or universecensus
a series of values of a variable at successive timestime series