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level: Level 1

Questions and Answers List

level questions: Level 1

What is geologyStudy of the earth
What is environmental geologyThe study of the complex relationship between humans and their geological environment
What are the spheres of the earthBiosphere, hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere, extraterrestial
What are some pros to mineralsProvides many products to humans, medicines, cleaners, cars, phones, provides jobs (miners, geologists, researchers, manufacturing, sales)
Cons to mineralsRenewable vs. non renewable (will we run out?), conservation (are we wasteful) mining ethically and morally, safe disposal
How do minerals formsolidification out of magma, or precipitation out of super saturated fluid
Definition of a mineralnaturally occurirng, inorganic crystalline solids that have a definite chemical composition and possess characteristic physical properties
hardness: the gorillas can flirt and five quirky things can do1. Talc, 2. Gypsum, 3. Calcite, 4. Fluorite, 5. Apatite 6. Feldspar 7. Quartz, 8. Topaz, 9. Corundum, 10. Diamond
non- metallic lustreAdamantine (diamond), Slendent (mirror) vitreous (glassy) resinous (plastic) greasy, silky, earthy or dull
what is diaphaneityminerals ability to transmit light. there are 3 kinds (transparent, translucent, opaque
top 8 elements found in the continental crust of the earthO, Si, Al,Fe,Ca,Na,K,Mg
What are the mineral groupsSilicates( if it has silicon) Non-silicates (if there is no silicon)
what are some non-silicatesoxides, sulphides, sulphates, native metals, halides, carbonates, phosphates, hydroxides
what is a mapa visual means of communicating encoded information from the map maker to the map reader
Earthquakethe vibration generated by the sudden release of energy associated with the rapid movement of rock along fault
Fault surfaceThe fracture surface between one block and another along which movement occurs
focusorigin of earthquake that point within the earth's crust where movement first occurred
Seismic waveswaves of energy that travel like shock waves from the focus
epicentera location on the earth's surface directly above the focus
What order do seismic waves come in?(Body waves) P waves, S waves, Surface waves (love waves, Rayleigh waves)
Properties of p wavestransmit through solid and fluid, 4 to 10 km/s, first waves at recording station, compression like a slinky
properties of S wavessecondary waves, shearing motion only through rock materials, like a rope when flicked, velocity 2 to 5 km/s, absorbed by the liquid core which creates s wave shadow zone. can cause a lot of damage
properties of surface wavestravel through the earth's lithosphere, can be very destructive, they form from unexpected p and s waves
what is a divergent boundarytensional, spreading. Mid oceanic ridge and rift valley
What is a convergent boundarycoming together, collisions, the denser plate always goes underneath known as subduction
what are the three types of convergent boundariesoceanic-oceanic, oceanic-continental, continent-continent
What is a transform boundaryrepresent a break along which two plates grind past each other, associated with shallow but destructive earthquakes
What is another way a volcano can formHot spot
oceanic-oceanic convergent boundarieswhichever plate is older will be subducted, presence of trench, volcanism
oceanic-continental convergent boundariesoceanic plate will always be subducted, benioff zone can very shallow, powerful earthquakes and explosive volcanic activity, crustal thickening in continental plate, can form mountains
What is a benioff zoneearthquake epicentre
continental-continental convergent boundaryNeither one is subducted, massive collision, major mountain building, powerful earthquakes, little volcanism
Magmamolten rock, has crystals and gasses within it (intrusive)
Lavamagma that reaches earths surface (extrusive)
Volcanoa vent which magma, gasses and solids are ejected, can build up to form a mountain like shape but not necessary
pyroclastic materialsolid rock fragments ejected during an eruption
tephraair born pyroclastic material, tephra varies in size (large bombs, lapilli (gravel sized) ash (finest size))
magma viscosity: less viscousmore fluid like
magma viscosity: more viscousless fluid like more sticky more explosive
Intrusive land formsform underground, cooling of magma exposed after erosion of rocks
extrusive land formsform at the surface from lava
is sand a rockno it is sediment
what is bedrockattached to earths crust
what is outcropexposure of bedrock at the surface
rocknaturally occurring, solid material comprised of aggregates of one or more minerals or solidified organic material
what are the 3 rock groupsigneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
what is the rock cyclemagma to igneous rock, to sediments to sedimentary rock to metamorphic
what is an igneous rockformed by the cooling and crystallization of molten rock
classification of igneous rocksrock texture (size of grains), the size of the mineral grain, colour, composition
what are the 3 kinds of colours of igneous rocksfelsic (light) intermediate and mafic (dark)
what is a felsic igneous rockrocks like granite (intrusive) and rhyolite (extrusive) are dominated by light coloured felsic minerals like quartz and feldspar
what is a mafic igneous rockgabbro and basalt dominated iron and magnesium
What are some other physical properties of mineralsfeel, taste, magnetic, chemical reaction, smell, fluorescence
what are some physical properties of mineralscleavage or fracture, density and specific gravity, hardness, colour, streak, lustre, diaphaneity
what is on a maptitle, legend, north arrow, scale, contour lines
what are contour linesspecial line symbols that join points of equal elavation
latitude has how many degrees and which direction0 to 90 degrees north or south
longitude has how many degrees and which direction0 to 180 east or west
military grid system6 numbers, first 3 is east west called easting next 3 north-south called northing
map symbolspoint(location of citys, town), line( roadways or boundaries), area(colours or patterns), qualitative symbols (presence and location of phenomena) and quantitative symbols (quantities of phenomena)
CalderaA volcanic crater that develops from the explosion and collapse of a composite volcano.
Composite cones or Statovolcanoesintermediate in size, variable slope angles, lay dormant for long time, very explosive eruptions,
Cinder conessmaller in size, shorter life span, higher angle (more steep) built of dry pyroclastic material, composition rhyolitic to andesitic
Shield volcanoeslargest found on earth, gentle slopes, formed from basalt
flood basaltvery fluid lava, ejected from a fissure, often fed from mantle plumes