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level: Level 1

Questions and Answers List

level questions: Level 1

What is this?Neutrophil
What is this?Eosinophil
What is this?Basophil
What is this?Monocyte
What is this?Lymphocytes
What is this?Reticulocytes
Small cellMicrocytic (anemia)
Large cellMacrocytic (anemia)
Normal sized cellNormocytic (Anemia)
Low haemoglobinHypochromic (anemia)
Normal haemoglobinNormochromic (anemia)
Microcytic, hypochromic anemiaIron deficiency
Normocytic normochromic anemiaChronic Inflammation anemia
macrocytic anemiaLiver disease anemia
Embryonic development, can form any tissueTotipotent Stem Cells
Increasing specialisation to produce a limited range of cell typesPluripotent Stem Cells
Progenitor cells, present it marrow and low number in bloodAdult Stem Cells
Myeloid, lymphoid cell lineagesCommitted Stem Cells
What is thisBone marrow
Induce growth and differentiation and produced by peripheral tissue of marrowCytokine signals (haemopoiesis)
Cell surface signals for regulation of haemopoiesisMarrow stromal cells
Ischaemic heart muscle pain when vascular disease and anaemicAngina
ischaemic leg pain when vascular disease and anaemicClaudication
Iron deficiency, thalassaemiasMicrocytic hypochromic anaemia causes
Megaloblastic anaemia, liver disease, too many red cells, myelodisplasiaCause of macrocytic anaemia
Reduced production in alpha and beta globin peptides for haemoglobin.Thalassaemia
Delayed and abnormal maturation of all cells in bone marrow and other tissues due to vitamin deficiencyMegaloblastic anaemia
Normocytic normochromic or microcytosisAnemia of chronic disease types
Change in iron availability generally due to inflammation/infectionAnemia of chronic disease causes
Rheumatoid arthritis, Tuberculosis and opportunistic infections, cancerAnemia of chronic disease with inflammation/infection
How fast the red blood cells fall in bloodErythrocyte Sedimentation Rate
Stack of red blood cellsRouleaux
Protein produced in the liver in acute and chronic inflammationC-reactive protein
Reduced erythropoietin. Use injections of EPO to fixRenal Disease anaemia
Inhibition of erythropoietin and bleedingAnaemia in cancer
Young red blood cells. Larger cell volume and stain blueReticulocytes
Reduced red cell survival in the circulation so increase in reticulocytes resulting in increased MCVHaemolysis and haemolytic anaemia
Malaria, burns, autoimmuneAcquired haemolytic anaemias
Haematology and clinical chemistryHaemolysis tests
No alpha or beta globinsthalassemia major
Reduced but variable amount of globinthalassemia intermedia
Carrier of thalassemia, no symptomsthalassemia minor
The occurrence of more than one allele at a locusallelic heterogeneity (?)
The association of more than one locus with a clinical phenotypelocus heterogeneity (?)
Other gene variants or the environment could change clinical phenotypeModifier genes and environment (?)
alpha thalassemia (deletions) and beta thalassemia (Mutations)Allelic heterogeneity examples
Thalassemia due to mutations in either alpha or beta globin genesLocus heterogeneity examples
Range of presentation in thalassemia intermediatesModifier genes and environment example
Thalassemia minor/traitalpha+ or beta+ thalassemia
Thalassemia minor with protection against malariabeta+ thalassemia
Silent carrieralpha- thalassemia 3 copies of alpha
Carrier with microcytic anaemiaalpha- thalassemia 2 copies of alpha
Moderatley severe thalassemiaalpha- thalassemia 1 copy of alpha
Very severe thalassemiaalpha- thalassemia 0 copies of alpha
Child has 1/4 chance of having thalassemiaIf both parents are thalassemia carriers