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level: Level 1

Questions and Answers List

level questions: Level 1

FSH, Oestrogen and LHWhat are the hormones of the female reproductive system
fsh- follicle stimulating hormone. matures follicle to release eggs in ovaries Oestrogen- import of fertility, maintaining easy foetus LH- Lutenising hormone- triggers ovulationwhat are the function of FSH, oestrogen and LH
FSH is released stimulating the ovaries to mature 1 egg, the follicles release the oestrogen. Oestrogen makes the womb lining thicker with nutrients and blood Oestrogen also stimulates the production of cervical mucus Eventually the rise in oestrogen will result in and LH surge This releases the ovum from the ovary LH moves along the fallopian tube, towards the wombExplain the menstrual cycle
The development of sperm cells Process occurs from puberty onwards germ cells develop into spermatocytes spermatocytes develop into spermatozoaWhat is spermatogenesis for males
it connects the testes with the urethrawhat is the vas defence
2 structures called corpasa cavernasa run along either side of the penis, these structures are the erectile tissue There are two arteries that run through the corpasa converasa During arousal these arteries become engaged with blood creating an erectionexplain erection
The hypothalamus release gonodotrophin releasing hormone This stimulates the pituitary gland to release: LH- acts on testes to make testosterone FSH- acts on testes to make spermExplain the male hormones
needed for sperm production linked to aggression and dominance linked to muscle mass and strength, bone density and metabolismTestosterone
produce and store eggs produce sex hormones transport ova to site of fertilisation menstruation locationfunctions of female reproductive system
signals the end of female fertility between 45-55 years Shrinkage of breasts irritability and mood changesthe menopause
cough reflex sneezing nasal hairsways the respiratory system prevents dust and particles entering the lungs
mouth nose pharynx (throat) larynxwhat is included in the upper airway of the respiratory system
nose- lines with hairs and mucous membranes warms, moisturisers and filters air mouth- secondary entry point for air. air enters the body quicker,but it is not filtered or warmed to some extent Pharynx- connects nasal cavity, oral cavity and oesophagus larynx- cartilage, voice boxExplain the upper airway system
separates the trachea and the oesophagus prevents food going down the wrong pipeepiglottis
Trachea- C shaped rings of cartilage, connects larynx and thorax bronchi- left and right. carries air into the lungs. forms many branches bronchioles- tiny branches of the bronchi. made of smooth muscle alveoli- tiny sacs. found at the end of each bronchiole surrounded by capillaries, where gas exchange takes placewhat's includes in lower area of the respiratory system and explain them
found in chest cavity passes into lungs from trachea which splits into 2 bronchi, one at each lung each bronchus then splits into smaller tubes called bronchioles these bronchioles terminate in tiny air sacs called alveoliStructure of the lungs
Digestion occurs in the alimentary canal, which stretches from mouth to anus in addition to chewing, food is broken down by the digestive enzyme malaise,which is present in saliva amylase promotes the breakdown of starch to maltrose saliva also contains mucus which keep the food moist- allowing the food to me swallowed more easilyThe alimentary canal- the mouth
pharynx- at the back of the mouth, blouses of food pass through this structure from the mouth to the oesophagus oesophagus- muscular tube that connects the pharynx to the stomach, at the end of the oesophagus is the oesophageal spinster that closes, trapping food in the stomach stomach- muscular sac about the size os 2 fists. storage for foodThe upper alimentary canal/ Gastrointestinal tract
after swallowing, the food is moved to the stomach by peristalsis. which takes place in the alimentary canal muscles of the oesophagus contract behind the food (bolus) whistle the mucles infront relax this allows food to be pushed along the oesophagus in a wave like motionoesophagus and peristalisis
Longitudinal circularwhat does the stomach wall contain
stomach contains themgastric glands
produces bile helps breakdown fatliver
after bile leaves the lungs the gall bladder stores it before the release of bile into small intestinegall bladder
produces: pancreatic amalase trypsin lipasepancrease
stomach leads directly into small intestine via a spincher that allows small amounts of food to pass made up of three sections duodenum jejunum illeumSmall intestine
duodenum- first and shortest part. receives partially digested food from the stomach, chemicals secreted by the pancrease, liver and gall bladder mix with the chyme in the duodenum to faciliate the chemical digestion Jejunum- middle section. most nutrients in the chyme are absorbed here lluem- last section. absorbs products of digestion that have not previously been absorbed; connects to large intestineexplain the sections of the small intestine
long and folded- increases the surface area for absorption folds are made up of villi the lining (epithelium) covering each villus is one cell thick, allowing nutrients to pass through by diffusion each villi has a blood capillary in the centre, allowing absorbed molecules to be transported. also has a lacteal in centreStructure and role of small intestine
caecum- beginning of the large intestine, pouch containing bacteria that assists with formation of faeces asending codon - carries faeces upwards along large intestine transverse codon- across desending codon- downLarge inestine
rectrum- final portion of the gi tract, connects colon to anus, stored faeces until it is eliminated anus- ring of muscle containing 2 spinichters, the open to allow defeaceationlower tract