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level: Endocrine Drugs

Questions and Answers List

level questions: Endocrine Drugs

Insulin is secreted by beta cells in the ____________ in the pancreasislets of Langerhans
Insulin is secreted by the pancreas to __________ the blood glucose level.lower
Glucose is metabolized in order toprovide energy for the body
When the pancreas does not produce any insulin, this is _______ diabetestype 1
When the pancreas produces too little insulin, this is known as _________ diabetestype 2
Type ____ diabetes also describes a condition where the number of or the sensitivity of insulin receptors on body cells is decreased.2
The abbreviation IDDM stands forinsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (now known as type 1 diabetes)
Type 1 diabetes is also known asjuvenile-onset diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is only treated with insulin given via this route of administration.Subcutaneous injection
The first treatment for type 2 diabetes isoral antidiabetic drugs
When necessary, type 2 diabetes is treated withinsulin
The abbreviation NIDDM stands fornon-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
When the blood glucose level is constantly elevated, this is known asuntreated or uncontrolled diabetes
3 important components of managing diabetes are1) limiting carbs and fats 2) controlling weight 3) exercising
Complications that can result from prolonged untreated or uncontrolled diabetes includediabetic neuropathy, diabetic retinopathy, arteriosclerosis, and ketoacidosis
The first insulin drug was made fromthe ground-up pancreases of cows (bovine insulin)
NPH stands forneutral protamine Hagedorn
This insulin drug was the first FDA-approved drug made by using recombinant DNA technologyHumulin
This was the first FDA-approved insulin analog druginsulin aspart
This drug, a powdered form of insulin, was discontinued due to lack of sales.Exubera
Insulin drugs are grouped according tothe timing of their therapeutic effect
How quickly an insulin drug acts in the body depends onthe size of the insulin crystal
How many hours an insulin drug's therapeutic effect lasts depends onthe amount of protamine and zinc added to the insulin
Rapid-acting insulin drugs have __________(larger, smaller) crystalssmaller
Humulin R is a ________ (fast-acting, long-acting) insulin drugfast-acting
Rapid-acting insulin drugs are always a ________ (clear, cloudy) liquid in a vial.clear
The brand name for insulin lispro is ________Humalog
Humalog is an insulin ________ drug.analog
The brand name for insulin aspart isNovoLog
NovoPen Echo (an epipen for children) has these functionsIt can administer half units and it has a memory function that records the dose and time of the last insulin injection.
The therapeutic effect for intermediate-acting insulin drugs does not start for1-2 hours, and it lasts 15 hours
Intermediate-acting insulin drugs are also known asNPH insulin drugs
NPH insulin drugs containprotamine and zinc
NPH in NPH insulin drugs stands forneutral protamine Hagedorn
Intermediate-acting insulin drugs are always a ________ (clear, cloudy) liquidcloudy, because of the presence of protamine
These groups have the highest rates of diabetes in the U.S.Poor people and minorities (especially blacks and Hispanics)
Oral antidiabetic drugs are __________ (more, less) effective in children.less
Children with diabetes are more likely to develop these complicationseye problems, nerve damage, kidney failure
This neurologic disorder has been linked to beef and beef/pork insulin drugs (which is why they are no longer available)Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
These two factors slow down the onset of insulin's therapeutic effect in long-acting insulin drugslarge insulin crystals and zinc
The therapeutic effect of long-acting insulin drugs lastsup to 24 hours
Long-acting insulin drugs are always ________ (clear, cloudy)clear
In combination insulin drugs, the _______ percentage is always listed first.intermediate-acting insulin drug
Long-acting insulin drugs are _________ (never, sometimes) used in combination with other insulin drugs.never
Insulin can never be given orally becausethe insulin molecule is broken down by digestive enzymes
Insulin is injected _______ (into the muscle, into the fat layer beneath the skin)into the fat layer beneath the skin
This portable device is about the size of a large pen and allows for discreet administration of insulinHumalog KwikPen
A portable insulin pump allows for insulin to be administered directly into _______.the blood
People who have poorly controlled diabetes may have atotally implantable computerized insulin pump
Oral antidiabetic drugs work bystimulating the beta cells of the pancreas to secrete more insulin and to increase the number of insulin receptors
Oral antidiabetic drugs cannot be used to treat patients with type ___ diabetes.1
Sulfonylurea oral antidiabetic drugs work bystimulating the beta cells of the pancreas to secrete more insulin
This first category of oral antidiabetic drugs wassulfonylurea drugs
The following endings are common to sulfonylurea antidiabetic drugs-amide, -ride, and -zide
glipizide (Glucotrol, Glucotrol XL) is an example of this type of oral antidiabetic drugsulfonylurea drug
This category of oral antidiabetic drugs works by closing potassium channels in the cell membranes of the beta cell.meglitinide drugs
Diabeta (glyburide) is a _________ oral antidiabetc drug.sulfonylurea
This ending is common to meglitinide oral antidiabetic drugs-glinide
Thiazolidinedione antidiabetic drugs work in these 2 ways1) they increase sensitivity of body cells to insulin 2) they decrease the release of stored glucose from the liver
This ending is common to generic thiazolidinedione oral antidiabetic drugs-glitazone
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor oral antidiabetic drugs inhibit the actions of these 2 enzymesamylase and alpha-glucoside hydrolase
When amylase and alpha-glucoside hydrolase are inhibited, ______ amounts of glucose are produced from food that is eaten.smaller
Sodium-Glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor oral antidiabetic drugs are also known asSGLT2 inhibitor drugs
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor oral antidiabetic drugs keep blood glucose levels down byinhibiting a substance that transports sodium and glucose from renal tubules into the blood
This ending is common to sodium-glucose contransporter 2 inhibitor oral antidiabetic drugs-glifozin
3 effects of biguanide oral antidiabetic drugs are:1) decrease absorption of glucose from intestines into blood 2) decrease release of stored glucose from liver into blood 3) and improves ability of body cells to use any insulin that is present
This drug is the only drug in the biguanide oral antidiabetic drugs categorymetformin (trade names: Glucophage and Glucophage XR)
DPP-4 inhibitor oral antidiabetic drugs work byprolonging the actions of GLP-1 and GIP
GLP-1 and GIP are hormones that are released into the blood by ________ after food is eaten.the small intestine
DPP-4 is an enzyme that normally ________ the actions of GLP-1 and GIP.inactivates
By _________ DPP-4, the actions of GLP-1 and GIP are prolongedinhibiting
This ending is common to generic DPP-4 inhibitor oral antidiabetic drugs-gliptin
The first FDA-approved drug in the DPP-4 inhibitor category wasJanuvia (sitagliptin)
Janumet containsmetformin and sitagliptin
Incretins are substances in the body thatstimulate GLP receptors in beta cells of the pancreas to release insulin when the blood glucose level is high
The main incretin in the body isglucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1)
Incretin mimetic antidiabetic drugs are only given this waysubcutaneous injection
Byetta (exenatide) is a synthetic version of a hormone found inthe saliva of the Gila monster
Byetta is a(n) __________ antidiabetic drugincretin mimetic
Byetta needs to be injected this oftenevery morning and every evening before meals
Bydureon needs to be injected this oftenonce a week (it is an extended-release injection)
Amylin is a substance in the body that has these 3 effects on the body1) slows the rate at which food leaves the stomach, 2) stops the release of stored glucose from the liver 3) works in the brain to decrease appetite
Symlin (pramlintide) is a ___________ antidiabetic drug.amylin analog
Welchol (colesevelam) is a bile acid sequestrant drug that is used to treat type 2 diabetes bystimulating receptors in the liver that produce a protein which increases glucose metabolism in cells
The thyroid gland secretes these 2 hormonestriiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4)
Sources of drugs used to treat hypothyroidism include:1) desiccated animal thyroid glands 2) synthetically manufactured drugs
liothyronine (Cytomel, Triostat) only containsthe T3 hormone
These thyroid hormone drugs contain both T3 and T4Thyrolar (liotrix) and Armour Thyroid (thyroid desiccated)
Thyrolar and Armour Thyroid are derived fromground-up and dried pig thyroid glands
This drug contains only T4 hormonelevothyroxine (Synthroid)
Hyperthyroidism is also known asthyrotoxicosis
hyperthyroidism is treated with this kind of drugantithyroid drug
If antithyroid drugs are not enough to lower thyroid hormone levels in the blood, this drug is used.radioactive sodum iodide 131
These 2 drugs are antithyroid drugs used to treat hyperthyroidism.Tapazole (methimazole) and propylthiouracil
Hypersecretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland causesacromegaly
hyposecretion of growth hormone from the pituitary gland causesfailure to grow in children
Diabetes insipidus is caused byhyposecretion of antidiuretic hormone by the pituitary gland
Parlodel, Somatuline Depot, Sandostatin, and Somavert are drugs used to treathypersecretion of human growth hormone
Iplex, Increlex, Geref, Protropin, Humatrop, and Nutropin are used to treathyposecretion of human growth hormone
ADH stands forantidiuretic hormone
2 drugs used to treat diabetes insipidus aredesmopressin (DDAVP, Stimate) and vasopressin (Pitressin)
DDAVP, Stimate, and Pitressin are given via these routessubcutaneous or intramuscular injection.
Cushing's syndrome is caused byhypersecretion of cortisol from the adrenal gland cortex
Addison's disease is caused byhyposecretion of cortisol from the adrenal gland cortex
Signifor (pasireotide) is used to treatCushing's syndrome in patients who cannot have surgery
Addison's disease is a _________ disorder where the body's antibodies destroy the _________ cortex.autoimmune, adrenal gland
Fatigue, weight loss, and decreased ability to tolerate stress, disease, or surgery are all symptoms ofAddison's disease
Addison's disease is treated withcorticosteroid drugs
These endings are common to generic corticosteroid drugs-asone, -isone, -olone
Moon face and buffalo hump are symptoms oflong-term or high-dose use of corticosteroids
Testosterone drugs are also known asandrogen drugs
cryptorchidism is a condition wherethe testes have not descended
orchitis is a condition wherethere is inflammation of the testes
Cryptorchidism, orchitis, delayed puberty, chemotherapy, alcoholism, or surgical removal of the testes can all causehyposecretion of testosterone
-sterone is a common ending to generic ________ hormone drugsandrogen
Axiron (a topical drug form of testosterone) is only applied tothe armpits
Anabolic steroids are schedule ____ drugsIII
Anabolism is the process oftissue building
catabolism if the process oftissue breakdown
Anabolic steroids are manufactured fromtestosterone
This kind of drug is used to treat loss of muscle mass and strength associated with AIDS wasting syndromeanabolic steroids
"Stacking" is the practice ofusing 2 or more anabolic steroids at the same time