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level: Neurologic Drugs

Questions and Answers List

level questions: Neurologic Drugs

This kind of drug is used to treat epilepsyanticonvulsant drugs
This kind of anticonvulsant affects the flow of sodium in and out of cells of the motor cortex, and prevents neurons from depolarizing or polarizing too quickly or repeatedly.hydantoin drugs
This kind of anticonvulsant depresses the motor cortex and raises the seizure threshold.succinimide drugs
This ending is common to generic succinimide drugs-suximide
This drug used to treat epilepsy is one of the oldest drugs on the marketphenytoin (Dilantin)
This type of anticonvulsant works by acting on several types of receptors throughout the body to affect memory, emotion, and muscles, and they have an anticonvulsant effect on receptors in the brainstem.benzodiazepine drugs
Benzodiazepine drugs are schedule ____ drugsIV
These endings are common to generic benzodiazepine drugs.-azepam, and -azepate
These drugs have a long-acting sedative and anticonvulsant effect and are schedule IV drugs.barbituate drugs
Barbituates work byinhibiting conduction of nerve impulses in the cerebral cortex and motor areas of the brain.
This ending is common to generic barbituate drugs-barbital
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a(n)neurotransmitter in the brain that inhibits nerve impulses.
In addition to being used to treat epilepsy, topiramate is also used to treatmigraines, bipolar disorder, alcohol and cocaine dependence, bulemia, and is used as an aid to lose weight and stop smoking.
This drug is a sulfonamide drug (used to treat bacterial infections), but it only acts as an anticonvulsant drug.Zonegran (zonisamide)
This type of drug causes the central nervous system tissue to become slightly acidic, which suppresses any abnormal electrical impulses that could trigger a seizure.carbonic anhydrase inhibitor drugs
Diamox (acetazolamide) is this type of drugcarbonic anhydrase inhibitor drug
Choice of drug therapy for patients with epilepsy depends onproper classification of the type of seizures that the patient has (based on EEG test findings)
Tonic-clonic seizures are also known asgrand mal seizures
Unconsciousness, excessive motor activity with alternating rigidity and jerking muscle contraction of extremities, and tongue biting are all symptoms oftonic-clonic or grand mal seizures
Absence seizures are characterized byimpaired consciousness, vacant staring, repetitive blinking, and/or facial tics
absence seizures are also known aspetit mal seizures
Complex partial seizures are characterized bysome impairment of consciousness with involuntary contractions of one or more muscle groups (including lip smacking and/or extremity movement)
Complex partial seizures are also known aspsychomotor seizures
Simple partial seizures are characterized byno impairment of consciousness, but involuntary contractions of or more muscle groups.
Simple partial seizures are also known asfocal motor seizures
Status epilepticus ______(is/is not) a medical is a medical emergency
Status epilepticus is characterized bya state of prolonged, continuous seizure activity or frequently repeated individual seizures that occur without regaining consciousness
Valium, Cerebryx, and Dilantin are used to treatstatus epilepticus
With dementia, there is a shortage of this neurotransmitter in the brain.Acetylcholine
The most common form of dementia isAlzheimer's disease
Research indicates that there is a link between Alzheimer's and these 2 conditionsdiabetes and obesity
Cholinesterase inhibitor drugs for Alzheimer's work byblocking cholinesterase, which prevents the breakdown of acetylcholine
Cholinesterase-inhibitor drugs are used to treat __________(moderate-to-severe/mild-to-moderate) Alzheimer's disease.mild to moderate
Exelon (rivastigmine) is used to treat Alzheimer's disease and __________dementia associated with Parkinson's disease
The most prescribed drug for Alzheimer's isdonepezil (Aricept)
Razadyne (galantamine) was originally derived fromdaffodils
This is the only drug used to treat Alzheimer's that comes as a transdermal patchExelon (rivastigmine)
NMDA stands forN-methyl-D-aspartate
NMDA receptor antagonist drugs work bybinding to NMDA receptors in the brain and preventing them from being overstimulated by glutamate
Glutamate isan amino acid thought to contribute to symptoms of Alzheimer's disease
NMDA receptor antagonist drugs are used to treat ___________ (mild to moderate/moderate to severe) Alzheimer's diseasemoderate to severe
Namenda (memantine) is aNMDA receptor antagonist drug
Caprylidene treats Alzheimer's disease bystimulating mitochondria in nerve cells in the brain to produce more energy
Initial symptoms of Parkinson's includemuscle rigidity, tremors, and slowing of voluntary movements
Parkinson's is caused byan imbalance between dopamine and acetylcholine
2 main categories of drugs used to treat Parkinson's disease are1) drugs that increase or enhance the action of dopamine 2) drugs that inhibit the action of acetylcholine
This drug, when combined with levodopa, allowed more levodopa to cross the blood-brain barrier.carbidopa
This drug was the first transdermal patch used to treat Parkinson's diseaseNeupro (rotigotine)
Mirapex (pramipexole) is approved by the FDA to treat Parkinson's and ________restless leg syndrome
MAO stands formonoamine oxidase, an enzyme that destroys dopamine
MAO inhibitor drugs work byinhibiting the enzyme monoamine oxidase, preventing the destruction of dopamine
Symmetrel (amantadine) is used to prevent and treat ________ as well as used to treat Parkinson's.Influenza A and influenza b respiratory infections
COMT stands forcatechol-O-methyltransferase
COMT is an enzyme thatmetabolizes levodopa in the blood
COMT inhibitor drugs treat Parkinson's byinhibiting COMT, which increases the level of levodopa in the blood that can cross the blood-brain barrier
atropine and hyoscyamine (Levsin) are specifically used to treattremors and rigidity in Parkinson's disease
Parcopa, Sinemet, and Stalevo arecombination drugs containing levodopa and carbidopa to treat Parkinson's disease
Exelon (rivastigmine) is used to treat ___________ associated with Parkinson's disease.dementia
When a patient is gradually withdrawn from a drug because the dose cannot be increased anymore or because the effects of a high dose are intolerable, this is calleda drug holiday
An autoimmune disease where the body attacks the myelin covering of nerves is known asMultiple sclerosis (MS)
Symptoms of MS includedouble-vision, large muscle weakness, uncoordinated gait, muscle spasticity, tremors, and neuralgias
Paresthesias is a condition wheresensation is altered
Examples of paresthesias includenumbness, tingling, and burning
Lyrica (pregabalin) can be used to treat symptoms ofneuralgia
These drugs can be given topically to treat neuralgia and neuropathycapsaicin (Capsin, Zostrix), lidocaine (Lidoderm)
These 2 categories of drugs are used to treat restless leg syndrome1) schedule IV benzodiazepine antianxiety drugs and 2) dopamine receptor stimulant drugs
These drugs are used on a short-term basis to treat insomniahypnotic/sedative drugs
Barbituate drugs are seldom used to treat insomnia becausethey are schedule II drugs and have high potential for addiction
The action of melatonin in the brain isto regulate the 24-hour wake-sleep cycle
Melatonin is secreted by thepineal gland
The therapeutic effect of melatonin receptor agonist drugs isto stimulate melatonin receptors in the brain, which causes sleepiness
This brand name drug is a reference to the luna moth that only comes out at night.Lunesta (eszopiclone)
This drug is specifically used to help patients who wake up in the middle of the night and cannot get back to sleep.Intermezzo (zolpidem)
Ambien is a trade name for the generic drugzolpidem
Benzodiazepine drugs are used to treat anxiety as well asinsomnia
Benzodiazepine treats insomnia byenhancing the effect of GABA
Categories of drugs used to treat insomnia includenon-barbituate hypnotic/sedative drugs, melatonin agonist drugs, benzodiazepine drugs, antidepresseants, barbituates, and combination drugs that contain antihistamine