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level: Level 1

Questions and Answers List

level questions: Level 1

basic requirements of all living organismsfood
major components of foodcarbs protein n fats
what are required in small quantities ?mineral n water
what does food provide us with n for what ?*energy n organic material *growth n repair of tissue
role of water in our body ?*metabolic processes *prevents dehydration of the body
what is digestion ?complex food --------------> simple ABSORBABLE form
digestion is carried out by which 2 methods ?mechanical n biochemical methods
the mouth first leads to ?oral /buccal cavity
what does oral cavity contains ?teeth , tongue
characteristics of human teeth*thecodont *diphyodont *heterodont
no. of permanent teeth in human adults ?32
different type of dentation ?incisors , canine , premolars , molars
dental formula for adults2123/2123
dental formula for kids2103
hard surface of teeth is made by ?enamel
what does enamel help in ?mastication of food
tongue is attached to floor of oral cavity by ?fernulum
what prevents entry of food into wind pipe ?epiglottis
what is epiglottis made up of ?cartilaginous flap
small projection on tongue that contain taste buds ?papillae
opening of windpipeglottis
shape of stomach ?J
sphincter that regulates opening of oesophagus into stomach ?gastro-oesophageal sphincter
where is stomach located ?upper left portion of abdominal cavity
parts of stomachcardiac fundus body pyloric
which portion opens into small intestine ?pyloric
shape of duodenumC
parts of small intestine*duodenum *jejunum *ileum
which part opens into large intestine ?ileum
points on caecum*small blind sac *hosts symbiotic microorganism
shape of vermiform appendixnarrow finger like tubular projections
parts of colon ?ascending transverse descending n sigmoid
which parts open into rectumsigmoid / descending
layers of alimentary canal*serosa *muscularis *sub mucosa *mucosa
serosa made up of ?*smooth muscles *thin mesothelium
mesothelium ?epithelium of visceral organs
muscularis is made up of ?smooth muscles arranged into *inner circular *outer longitudinal
oblique muscles in muscularies r present in which regionstomach
sub mucosal layer is formed of ?loose connective tissues with nerves blood n lymph vessels
which region has glands in sub mucosa ?duodenum
what does mucosa form in stomach ?irregualr folds (rugae) n villi (finger like projections )
which modification increases the surface area ?brush border appearnce in small intestine
what are villi supplied with ?network of capillaries n lacteals (large lymph vessels )
what does goblet cells of mucosal epithelium secretemucus (lubrication)
glands by mucosagastric gland --- stomach crypts of lei ----small intestine (crypts r btw villi bases )
the three salivary glands*parotids---cheek *sub maxillary/ mandible ---lower jaw *sub lingual---below tongue
weight of liver1.2 to 1.5 kg
position of liver in the body ?abdominal cavity just below diaphragm
the structural n functional units of liver ?hepatic lobules
each lobule is covered in ?glissons capsule (thin connective tissue sheath)
bile is secreted by ?hepatic cells
bile is stored n conc in ?gall bladder
gall bladder is ?thin muscular sac
what forms the common bile duct ?cystic duct + hepatic duct
bile +pancreatic duct is ?common hepato-pancreatic duct
common hepato pancreatic duct is gaurded by ?sphincter of oddi
where is pancreas situated ?btw the limbs of c shaped duodenum
process of digestion is accomplished by ?mechanical n chemical process
function of buccal cavity*mastication of food *facilitation of swallowing
function of teeth n tongue ?with saliva masticate n mix up the food thoroughly
fucntion of mucus in saliva ?lubricating n adhering the masticated food into bolus
the act of swallowingdeglutition
movement thru which bolus passes down ?peristalsis
components of saliva*electrolytes(Na , K , Cl,HCO3) *salivary enzymes *lysozyme
amt of starch hydrolysed by salivary amylase ?30%
pH level in oral cavity ?6.8
role of lysozyme in salivaantibacterial agent that prevents infection
the 3 cells of gastric gland*mucus neck cell *peptic or chief cell *parietal or oxyntic cell
mucus neck cell secretesmucus
peptic or chief cells secretepepsinogen
parietal or oxyntic cellHCl n intrinsic factors
the stomach stores food for ?4-5 hrs
what is chyme ?bolus mixed with acidic gastric juice n churned
what activates the proenzyme pepsinogen ?HCl
pepsinogen gets converted intopepsin