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level: Level 1

Questions and Answers List

level questions: Level 1

what is physiologythe study of how living organisms function
what is pathophysiology?when normal function has gone wrong
what is comparative physiology?comparing across species
what is the dependent variable and where on the graphthe variable that responds to the change, y axis
what is the independent variable and where on the graphthe variable that the researcher controls or changes to affect the dependent, x axis
what is invitroin a culture dish
what is in vivoin a living creature
what is the process of developing drugs and treatmentsin vitro first, secondly in vivo, then clinical trials
what is muscle tissuetissue specialised to generate mechanical force for contraction
what is nervous tissuetissue specialised for initiating, integrating and conducting electrical signals
what is epithelial tissuespecialised cells that form membranes which cover body surfaces and line the inside of hollow organs and glands
what is connective tissue and give one examplespecialised to contain large amounts of extracellular material. blood
what are the 3 types of muscle tissyeskeletel, cardiac and smooth
what does skeletal muscle tissue docontraction under voluntary control, produce movements of limbs
what are cardiac muscleinterselected discs couple cardiac muscle cells mechanically and electrically
where and what do smooth muscle doin the walls of tubes in the body and involuntary contractions
what do neurons conductimpusles
what are glial cellssupporting cells that do not conduct a nerve impulse but are essential for neuron function
what is simple epithelium made ofsingle cell thick tissue
what is stratified epithelium made ofthicker, consisting of multiple layer of cells
what is stratified epithelium made ofthicker, consisting of multiple layer of cells
what are epithelial cells named aftertheir shape
what is squamousflattened
what is cuboidalcube shaped
what is columnarcolumn shaped, elongated
where do epithelial cells reston extracellular protein layer called the basement membrane
what do connective tissue cells doconnect, anchor and support the structures of the body
what are the 4 primary types of connective tissueconnective tissue proper, cartilage, bone, blood
what is connective tissue proper composed ofprotein fibres and gel like ground substance
3 examples of connective tissue properloose connective tissue, dense regular connective tissue and adipose tissue
what are cartilage composed ofcells called chondrocytes surrounded by a semi solid ground substance
what is bone composed ofcells called osteoblasts trap mineral salts
how many different types of cells in the bodyapprox 200
what is the structure of plasma membraneselectively permeable, gives form and separates from the external environment
what is the structure of cell organellesmembrane bound compartments that perform the function
what is the interior of cells divided intonucleus and cytoplasm
what are the two membrane structuresintegral and peripheral
what is integral structureclosely associated with the membrane lipids, amphipathic , most span the entire membrane
what is peripheral structuredo not associate with the non polar regions of the lipid in the interior membrane, surface bound to polar regions
what are membrane junctionsjunctions that physically join cells
what are desmosomesa membrane junction that serve as anchoring points for cadherins
what are tight junctionstwo adjacent plasma membranes joining together so that no extracellular space remains between them
what do gap junctions consist of and what do they doprotein channels and linking the cytosis of adjacent cells in muscle cells of the heart
what do dna form in the nucleusthreads of chromatin
what barrier surrounds the nucleus and what is it made ofthe nuclear envelope, composed of two lipid bilayers with nuclear pores
what er has ribosomesrough
what happens in the smooth erproduction of lipid based molecules
what happen in the rough erprotein synthesis that are after secreted by the cell or distributed to other cell organelles
what does the golgi apparatus dopackaging molecules alled vesicles and can be transported to the cell membrane
what are endosomesmembrane bound vesicular and tubular structures that lie between the plasma membrane and the golgi apparatus
what are the endosomes functionsorting, modifying ad directing vesicular traffic in cells
what are lysosomes and whats their functionspherical organelle surrounded by a single membrane and act to break down bacteria and the debris from dead cells that have been engulfed by a cell
what are peroxisomesmoderately dense oval bodies enclosed by a single membrane
what are one of the reaction products in peroxisomeshydrogen peroxide H2O2
what are vaultscytoplasmic structures that are made of proteins and a type of RNA called vault RNA (vRNA)
what is a cytoskeletona filamentous network that is associated with processes that maintain and change cell shape and produce cell movements
what are 3 classes of cytoskeletonactin filaments, intermediate filaments, microtubules
what are actin filaments composed of and what do they domonomoers of the protein G-actin and determining cell shape
what are intermediate filaments made of and what do they dotwisted strands of several different proteins including keratin, desmin and lamin. Contributes to cell shape and help anchor the nucleus
what are microtubuleshollow tubes about 25 nanometer in diameter
what is ciliahair like extensions on the surfaces of most cells, have a central core of microtubules
what do cilia dothe movements of cilia help propel the content of the organ along the surface of the epithelium
what are solutessubstances that dissolve in water
what are solventsthe liquids that solutes dissolve in
how are solutions formedsolutes dissolving in solvent
what is solute concentrationthe amount of solute present in a unit volume of solution
what is the formula for molar solutionMolar solution (M) = moles solute / litre solution
how much molar solution = litres1M solution = 1mol/litre
what is molal solutionmoles solute / kg solvent
what is the molecular weight of a molecule equal tothe sum of atomic mass of all atoms in the molecule
what is formula for pHpH = - log [H+] or pH = log 1 / H+ concentration
what H+ concentration does pure water have10^-7
what is an acidic solutiona solution that has more H+ ions than OH- ions
what is an alkaline solutiona solution that has more OH- ions than H+ ions
what is a baseany substance that can accept a hydrogen ion
what are buffersa system of molecules and ion that act to prevent changes in hydrogen concentration.
what is an Hbufferbuffer + H+
what is the formula for density of liquidsp=m/v
when does pressure increasewith depth
what is the formula for pressureP= Pa + pgh
what is Pa and pghPa is atmospheric pressure, p is density, g is acceleration due to gravity, and h is depth
what is flowthe volume of liquid moved per unit time
how is flow measuredLitres/minute
what is resistancehow difficult it is for the fluid to flow between to points
what is the formula for fluid flowF = ΔP / R
what are the 3 factors that influence resistanceviscosity of fluid, length of tube, inner radius of tube
what is resistance formulaR = 8Lη / πr4
what is η, L and rviscosity, length, inner radius
what does body fluid refer towatery solution of dissolved substances in the body
what is the extracellular fluidthe fluid in the blood and in spaces surrounding the cells
what is pasmafluid portion of blood
what is the interstitual fluid75-80% of fluid that lies around and between cells
what is the formula for extracellular fluid= sum of the plasma and interstitual fluid volumes
what is intracellular fluidthe fluid located inside the cells and accounts for 67% of all fluid in the body
what is simple diffusionthe movement of molecules from one location to another
what is the second law of thermodynamicsa closed system will always tend towards maximum entropy or disorder
what is fluxthe amount of material crossing a surface
what is net fluxthe difference between the 2 one-way fluxes and the net flux will reach zero at diffusion equilibrium
what does the net flux depend ontemperature, mass, surface area and the medium
what is ficks first law of diffusion formulaJ = PA(C0-C1)
what is J, P, A, C0, and C1rate of diffusion, membrane permeability coefficient, surface area, conc. outside cell and conc inside cell
what does rate of diffusion depend onmagnitude of conc. difference permeability of the membrance to the molecules temperature of solution surface area of the membrane
what can form ion channelsintegral membrane proteins
what are transportersconformational changes of integral membrane proteins
what do transporters dothey bring solutes that are too polar to diffuse through the membrane and too large to diffuse through the ion channels
what is mediated transportthe diffusion of polar and too large solutes through ion channels
what does the rate of solute flux through mediated transport depend onsolute conc. affinity of the transporters for the solute number of transporters in the membrane rate at which the conformational change in the transport protein occurd
what are the two types of mediated transportfascillitated diffusion active transport
what is fascillitated diffusionuses a transporter to move solute and always goes from higher to lower concentration. no energy required
what is active transportuses energy to move a substance against its conc. gradient
what are the two types of active transportprimary active transport secondary active transport
what is primary active transportdirect use of ATP
what is secondary active transportuse of electrochemical gradient
what is the pump and where is it foundNa+/K+ - ATPase and it is found in every cell
what does the pump domaintains the distribution of high intracellular K+ and low intracellular Na+
what are the two binding sites for transporterscotransport = symport countertransport = antiport
what is osmosisthe net movement of water molecules across a membrane
what is aquaporinsmembrane proteins that fasfillitate osmosis
what is osmolaritythe total solute conc. of a solution
how much is 1 osmol equal to1 osmol = 1 mol of solute particles
the higher the osmolarity, the lower the ??lower the water conc.
what is osmotic pressurethe pressure that must be applied to the solution to prevent net flow of water into it
what is a semi permeable membranea membrane permeable to water but not to the solutes
what are non penetrating solutessolutes that cant travel through a semi permeable membrane
the osomotic pressure is greater, when the osmolarity of ????of the solution is greater
what are the 3 tonic solutionsisotonic hypotonic hypertonic
what is isotonichaving the same conc. of non penetrating solutes as extracellular fluid
what is hypotonichaving a lower conc. of non penetrating solutes as extracellular fluid
what is hypertonichaving a higher conc. of non penetrating solutes as extracellular fluid
what can happen to cells if the extracellular osmolarity changesthe cells can shrink or swell, causing it to rupture
what are the 3 osmolarity of solutionsisoomotic hypoosmotic hyperosmotic
what is isoosmotica solution containing 300 milliOsmol/L of solute
what is hypoosmotica solution containing less than 300 milliOsmol/L of solute
what is hyperosmotica solution containing more than 300 milliOsmol/L of solute
what is endocytosisthe movement of molecules into the cell via vesicles
what are the 3 common types of endosytosispinocytosis phagocytosis recepter - mediated endocytosis
what is exocytosisthe movement of molecules out of the cell via vesicles
what are the two functions exocytosis performsreplaces portions of the plasma membrane provides a route
what are the two epithelial transportsparacellular pathway transcellular pathway
what is paracellular pathwaydiffusion occurring between adjacent cells of the epithelium
what is transcellular pathwaydiffusion into an epithelial cell across either the apical or basolateral membrane
where else does transcellular pathway occurthrough the cytosol and exit across the opposite membrane
what i homeostasisthe physiological variables in a state of dynamic constancy
what is the main purpose of physiological variablesto maintain homeostasis
what results from a deviation from homeostasisdiseases
what is dynamic constancylevels remaining constant over long periods of time
what does homeostasis do after eatingreturns the glucose levels back to their set points
what are tightly controlledvariables that barely change over time
what is the homeostatic control systemthe compensatory mechanisms that mediate the response to changes in physiologically controlled variables
what is steady statewhen energy is continuously added to maintain the stable condition
what is set pointthe desired value of the regulated variable that the system attempts to maintain