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level: Henry III and Simon de Montfort

Questions and Answers List

level questions: Henry III and Simon de Montfort

9How old was Henry III when he became king?
1234 and he'd already had problems with them.When did Henry rule on his own? And what was his relationship with the Barons like?
-Opportunist - aristocratic family - lost land -Favourite steward of the King -Married King's sister (wealth and opportunity) -Represented King abroad - reclaimed wife's French landWho was Simon de Montfort? (4)
-Payed a lot of money to the Pope (religious) -French influence and advice in parliament (King had French advisors and wife) -Lost campaign to regain French land (Gascon campaigns)Causes of conflict between Henry III and Barons (3)
He was ruthless and brutal, 1248How did Simon de Montfort reclaim French lands and in what year?
-Henry criticised him at an inquiry -He put his son in charge of French campaigns - felt bad for French -This lead to de Montfort returning to England and becoming the barons' spokesmanWhat did Henry do when he saw what Simon did to retake French land? (2) What did this lead to?
1) Henry needed barons' support but didn't have it because they wouldn't support increased taxes so... 2) Henry couldn't give the Pope money he promised to stop the Pope from excommunicating him (similar to John's suspension of services)What were Henry's two crisises after de Montfort became spokesman?
-Foreign members of the royal household banished -Castles to be held by Englishmen -Each town has a sheriff and taxes decided locally -Barons could make decisions without the king but the king couldn't make decisions without the barons -The Great Council (15 barons elected by 24 men - 12 king appointed, 12 baron)The Provisions of Oxford (5)
-Some like de Clare felt provisions damaged own local interests -Younger barons weren't elected to Great Council and lost their influence -Some disliked lower orders given some say - knights and burgesses had too much sayWhy did some barons oppose the Provisions of Oxford? (3)
-October 1259 - extended from Provisions of Oxford -Reformed local government - popular with those less powerful -Barons hated this because they had to accept some reforms demanded by tenantsProvisions of Westminster (3)
The barons were divided among each other because new provisions went against what some barons wantedWhy did Henry return to power?
-Henry rejected Provisions of Oxford and Westminster - got Pope to cancel them (church and state) -Henry appointed own council -De Montfort went to France but returned when barons relations with King got worse over 3 yearsCauses of the 2nd Barons War when Henry returned to power? (3)
-Barons won -King captured and Prince Ed imprisoned2nd Barons' War 1264 - Battle of Lewes (2)
-De Montfort most powerful man in England - some thought too powerful -New Great Council disliked - De Montfort appointed 9 friends/allies -De Montfort supported Magna Carta and Provs of Oxford -Barons who supported King weren't happy -Magna Carta reissued2nd Baron's War - De Montfort's power after Lewes (5)
-De Montfort called meeting -Knights and burgesses came to support De Montfort -Burgesses = merchants - first commoners in the Great Council (later the commons)Origins of Parliament, 1265 (3)
-Barons thought De Montfort too powerful - supported Henry again -Prince Edward released - raised army against De Montfort -August 1265 - Battle of Evesham - De Montfort cut to pieces and sent around the country as a warning -Henry III became King again but didn't call another Great Council MeetingEnd of 2nd Barons' War 1265 (4)
-Edward knew how difficult barons were -Learned from father and grandfather -Worked with barons effectively -Edward negotiated to raise funds for warReign of Edward I (4)
-1295 model parliament resembled modern day parliament -Lords invited but commoners elected -Not perfect - only barons could vote -Change not likely without the reforms of Simon De MontfortSignificance - Model Parliament (4)