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level: Level 1

Questions and Answers List

level questions: Level 1

DiffusionHappens where there is a difference in concentration; can also result to net movement of particles
Square of the distanceThe time it takes to diffuse from one place to another is proportional to the
Circulatory systemAlternative adaptation for efficient exchange of animals that lack a simple body plan
Gastrovascular CavityFunctions in the distribution of substances throughout the body as well as in digestion for animals such as hydra, jellies, and other cnidarians
Increasing surface area and minimizing diffusion distancesA flat body optimizes exchange by
circulatory fluid, interconnecting vessels, and muscular pump (heart)Three basic components of a circulatory system
open or closedCirculatory systems are either
HemolymphInterstitial fluid in a closed circulatory system that bathes body cells
BloodCirculatory fluid in closed circulatory system that is confined to vessels and is distinct from interstitial fluid
Uses less energyOpen circulatory system benefits
Effective delivery of oxygen and nutrientsClosed circulatory system benefits
Cardiovasular systemTerm used to describe the heart and blood vessels in vertebrates
Arteries, Veins, CapillariesThree main types of blood vessels
ArteriolesConvey blood to capillaries
CapillariesMicroscopic vessels with very thin, porous walls
Capillary bedsNetwork of capillaries
awayArteries carry blood _____ the heart
towardVeins carry blood ______ the heart
atria/atriumThe chamber that receives blood entering the heart
ventricleChamber/s responsible for pumping blood
Single CirculationBlood travels through the body and returns to its starting point in a single circuit or loop
Double CirculationHave two circuits of blood flow
Pulmonary CircuitGas exchange takes place in the lungs
Pulmocutaneous CircuitGas exchange takes place in capillaries in both the lungs and skin
Systemic CircuitBegins with the left side of the heart pumping oxygen-enriched blood from the gas exchange tissues to capillary beds in organs and tissues throughout the body
oxygen-poor bloodThe right side of the heart receives
oxygen-rich bloodThe left side of the heart receives
Cardiac MuscleThe human heart consists mostly of
it pumps bloodWhen the heart contracts
it fills its chambers with bloodWhen the heat relaxes
Cardiac CycleOne complete sequence of pumping and filling
SystoleContraction phase of the cycle
DiastoleRelaxation phase of the cycle
Cardiac OutputVolume of blood each ventricle pumps per minute
Heart rateRate of contraction of the heart; number of beats per minute
Stroke VolumeAmount of blood pumped by a ventricle in a single contraction
ValvesPrevent backflow and keep blood moving in the correct direction
Atrioventricular ValveLies between each atrium and ventricle ; anchored by strong fibers that prevent them from turning inside out during ventricular systole
Semilunar ValveLocated at the two exits of the heart where the pulmonary artery leaves the right ventricle and where the aorta leaves the left ventricle
AV valveLub sound is created by the
SL valveDub sound is created by the
Heart murmurAbnormal sound produced when blood squirts through a defective valve
Sinoatrial Node (pacemaker)Sets the rate and timing at which all cardiac muscle cells contract via the production of electrical impulse much like those produced by nerve cells
Electrocardiodiagram (ECG/EKG)Measures the electrical activity of the heart
Atrioventricular nodeRelay point where impulses are delayed by 0.1 second before spreading to the heart apex
Bundle branches and Purkinje FibersSpecialized structures that relay the electrical signals from the heart apex
Speeds upSympathetic division in the body trigger physiological cues that ____ the heart tempo
Slows downParasympathetic division in the body trigger physiological cues that ______ the heart tempo
Body temperatureType of input that also affects the pacemaker; evident when you have a fever
EndotheliumSingle layer of flattened epithelial cells
CapillariesSmallest blood vessels
Basal LaminaCapillaries consists of a surrounding extra layer called
twoHow many layers does arteries and veins have in their walls
Connective TissuesThe outer layer of arteries and veins is formed by
Smooth MuscleLayer next to endothelium of arteries and veins
valvesVeins contain _____ that prevent backflow
Slow down; largerBlood pressure in capillaries ______ due to ____ cross sectional area compared to veins and arteries
Ventricular systoleArterial blood pressure is highest when the heart contracts during
Systolic pressurePressure during pumping of blood
PulseRhythmic bulging of the artery walls with each heartbeat
Diastolic PressurePressure when ventricles are relaxed
VasoconstrictionProcess when the smooth muscles in arteriole walls contract and the arterioles narrow
VasodilationA process that tends to increase the diameter that causes blood pressure in the arteries to fall
Nitric OxideGas as an inducer of vasodilation
EndothelinPeptide that is the most potent inducer of vasoconstriction
SphinctersRings of smooth muscle at the entrance to capillary beds
Dissolved proteinsResponsible for much of the blood's osmotic pressure
Lymphatic SystemSystem that recovers and returns the lost fluid and proteins
LymphRecovered fluid; circulates within the lymphatic system before draining into a pair of large veins of the cardiovascular system at the base of the neck
Lymph VesselsLike veins, have valves that prevent the backflow of fluid
EdemaFluid Accumulation in affected tissues
ElephantiasisCondition marked by extreme swelling in limbs or other parts of the body
Lymph NodesSmall lymph filtering organs; play an important role in the body's defense