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level: Level 1- Week 1

Questions and Answers List

level questions: Level 1- Week 1

Psychological DisorderA psychological disfunction that causes impairment/distress to an individual and and elicts a response that is typically/culturally unexpected
Different types of Mental health PractitionersClinical Psychologists (cause, treat, assess, diagnose)
Science Practitioner Approachconsumer of science, evaluator of practice, creator of science, evidence based
what is abnormal?statistically infrequent, violate social norms, personal distress/impairment
What is Stigma?Cues (psychiatric symptoms, social deficit, labels, physical appearance), Stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination
historical perspective- supernatural causes mental illness, possession by demons/evil/witches/spirits, treatment includes shock and exorcism
Biological Perspective - HippocratesDisturbance is caused by fluids/humors
Different fluids/humors1) blood (heart), 2) yellow bile (liver), 3) phlem (brain), 4) black bile (spleen)
Psychological PerspectiveMoral therapy, Asylums (dix), Mesmerism, Hysteria/Hypnosis, Freud
Freuds Structure of the Mindid - pleasure principle. ego - mediator of the two, reality principle. superego - conscious, reasoning
defense mechanismsdenial, repression, projection, reaction formation, displacement, sublimation, rationalization, regression, identification, intellectualization
Psychoanalysisfree association, dream analysis, transference, therapy
free associationsay whatever comes to mind
dream analysisdreams tell you your unconscious thoughts, interpret them to know what your really feeling
Humanistic PerspectiveRogers (person-centered therapy, unconditional positive regard, relate to the person), Gestalt therapy
Integrated approachBiological influences: genes, diathesis stress model (predisposed to disorders), brain/neurotransmitters
Assessment Toolsreliable (consistent), valid (measures what its suppose to), standard
types of assessment toolsprojective tests, objective tests, behavioural assessment, biological assessment, clinical interview
Projective Tests- shown a picture/series and asked what you think of it, how you interpret it. access the unconscious mind/motivations that are unaccessible by self-report. advantages: target what the patient doesnt verbally say. Disadvantages: controversial (reliability and validity), reliance on interpretation
Objective testsQuestionnaires: advantages - specific, easy, comparison easy, objective, standard, rely on self-report. disadvantage: people can lie easily, non-comprehensive, not individualized, limited infomriaton, no non-verbal information
behavioural assessmentobserve the patient in a particular setting. advantages: targets behavior, direct observation, standard, objective, individualized. Disadvantages: may cause bahavior to change, time consuming, expensive
biological assessmentneuroimaging (CT, MRI, fMRI, PET), neuropsychology (look for defecits when doing certain activities), neurophysiological (look at bodily changes)
Clinical AssessmentStructured/semistructured/unstructured interviews
Mental Staus ExamBehaviour/Appearance, thought process, intellectual functioning, sensorium, mood/affect
internal/external validityinternal - confident that independent variable measures what its suppose to. external - how well your results relate to things outside your study
research designsexperiements, case studies, correlational study, longitudinal (observe group), epidemiological (prevalance, incident, risk facotrs), qualitative
anxietyless intense, longer lasting then panic, more about the future, prolonged state of apprehension/worry/fear/mood state
fearhere and now, more acute emotional alarm/reaction
specific phobiasfear/anxiety about something specific. irrational and avoid what your scared of. phobia is when a fear causes distress or disturbs your everyday life. treatment: exposure therapy (VR reality)
different categories of phobiasanimal, environmental, situational, blood-injection-injury, other
social anxiety disorderintense fear of social situations where you may be judged. onset is 15 y/o and duration about 20 years. treatment: cognitive group therapy
panic disorderrecurring, intense, unexpected panic attacks. symptoms: sweating, raised heart beat, shortness of breath, fain, fear of dying/going crazy, temperature changes. onset is late 20's
agoraphobiafear of situations where you cannot escape or get help
general anxiety disorderuncontollable/excessive worry about everything/little everyday things. symptoms: trouble sleeping/concentrating, irritable, muscle tension
psychological influence of mental illnesschildhood experiences, stress/trauma, personality, learned helplessness (depression), hopelessness (depression)
biological influences on mental illnessgenes, vulnerability, neurotransmitters, behavioral inhibition system (anxiety), fight or flight mode (anxiety)
anxiety treatments- drug therapy (bezodiazepines - short term relief, addictive, side-effects or SSRIs - more long term, several weeks), CBT (exposure therapy), Cognitive techniques (thought records, cognitive distorition, cognitive restructuring, problem solving)
MDDat least 2 weeks with 5 or more symptoms. symptoms: depressed mood, loss in interest of pleasureable things, difficulty sleeping, lethargic, agitated, change in weight/appetite, loss of energy, fatigue, negative self- oncept, guily, worhtless, suicide thoughts
PDDfrequent depressed feeligns for 2 or more years with 2 or more symptoms. symptoms: despressed mood, appetite chagnes, low energy, fatigue, low self esteem, poor concentration
premenstrually dysphoric disorderat least 1 (irritable, angry, depressed, anxious), at least 1 (decreased interest, trouble concentrating, appetite change, lethargy, sleep issues, ovewhelmed, phsyical symptoms)
Bipolar I disorderat least 1 Manic episode, often at least 1 MDD episode
Bipolar II disorder1 hypomanic episode, 1 MD episode usually, never been manic
cyclothymic disordercycles of sub-par hypothymic/depressive episodes. rapid cycles (4x per year)
specifiers of depressionpsychotic features (hallucination/delusion), anxious, mixed features, melancholic features, catatonic features, atypical, peripatum onset, seasonal
manialasts 1 week, extreme mood elevation, symptoms (3+): inflated self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, more talkative, racing thoughts, irritability, violence is common
hypermanialasts around 4 days, less extreme then mania
Treatment for depression- electroconculsive therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, cbt, drugs, interpersonal therapy
treatments for bipolarCBT, medication, psychoeducation, cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy