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Biologie Kapitel 5-6


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Lizzy Kutten


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[Front]


measure of speed which your body uses energy
[Back]


metabolism

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Biologie Kapitel 5-6 - Details

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Work
Capacity to bring about change in a defined system
Potential energy
Energy stored in any system as a consequence of its position
Kinetic energy
System possesses as a consequence of its state of motion
Chemical energy
Potential stored in atoms because of their position in relation to other atoms
Kinetic energy
Mechanical, electrical, light, heat energies
Heat energy
Portion of total energy of a particle that can flow
Capture, store and use energy
To counteract the effects of the second law cells must....
Catabolism
The linked chain of energy -producing reactions that release chemical energy
Catabolism
Process of breaking down complex biomolecules
Anabolism
Creation of complex biomolecules from organics compounds
Oxidation
Loss of molecule, atom or ion
Reduction
Gain of electrons by a molecule, atom or ion
Oxidation and reduction
Redox reactions that are complementary reactions
Enzymes
Bio catalysts that speed up reactions w/o being changed
Substrates
Reactants that bind to the active site of an enzyme
Induced fit model by Daniel Koshland
Theory:when the active site on the enzymes makes contact with the proper substrate, the enzyme molds itself to the shape of the molecule
Metabolic pathway
Orderly sequence of chemical reactions catalyzed by enzymes
Phenylketornuria
A condition caused by the failure of phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH)
BMR basal metabolic rate
Rate at which the energy the body uses when the subject is resting
Photosynthesis
Metabolic pathway that transforms light to food(sugar)
Photosynthesis
Making sugars from CO2 and H2), generates oxygen as by-product
Cellular respiration
Process of releasing energy from food molecules
Energy carriers (ATP)
Organic molecules that receive, store, and deliver energy in a cell
ATP --> ADP
Can release energy when it loses a terminal phosphate
Chlorophyll, chloroplast
Light reactions begin when _____ in the internal membranes of the ____ absorb blue and red wavelengths
Glycolysis
Enzyme-catalyzed reactions break sugar molecules into smaller molecules, generating ATP
Oxidative phosphorylation
Membrane-bound protein complexes remove electrons and protons from NADH in an oxygen-dependent process
Photons
Massless particles like waves that carry a fixed amount of energy
Electromagnetic spectrum
Photon energy is measured in wavelengths and covers a broad span known as the
Stomata
Pores located on the leaves that regulated pores open to enable entry of carbon dioxide,
Chlorophyll
Absorbs light energy which drives synthesis of energy carriers
Thylakoid membrane, antenna complexes
The____ studded with patches of pigment-protein complexes, known as____ that absorb light in a range of wavelengths.
Electron transport chain
High-energy electrons from the PSII reaction center are transferred to
ETC
Series of electron-accepting molecules that pass electrons from one to another, giving off small amounts of energy; energy released by the long ETC generates ATP.
ATP synthase
Permits accumulated protons to rush back into the stroma, releasing energy to drive/format ATP
The proton gradient
The product of the electron transport chain. A higher concentration of protons
The calvin cycle
Series of Enzyme-Driven Reactions That Manufacture Sugars
Carbon fixation
Synthesizes sugars from carbon dioxide and water.
Rubisco
Catalyzes the first step in carbon fixation: the linking of a 5-carbon acceptor molecule
Rubisco
Ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase
Pyruvate
Enzyme-catalyzed reactions convert glucose to a 6-carbon intermediate, which is then broken down to G3P, then converted into.....
Anaerobic
Glycosis does not require oxygen, which makes it
Fermentation
Begins with glycolysis, followed by postglycolytic reactions whose only role is to help perpetuate glycolysis.
Fermentation
Converts pyruvate into an alcohol (ethanol), releasing CO2 gas.
Aerobic
Oxygen dependent processes
Photosystem 1
Second system in the photosynthetic light reactions of algae, plants, and some bacteria. it is an integral membrane protein complex that uses light energy to produce the high energy carriers ATP and NADPH.
Photosystem 2
First protein complex in the light-dependent reactions of oxygenic photosynthesis. It is located in the thylakoid membrane of plants, algae, and cyanobacteria.
Photorespiration
A respiratory process in many higher plants by which they take up oxygen in the light and give out some carbon dioxide
CAM
Crassulacean acid metabolism
CAM
Carbon fixation pathway that evolved in some plants as an adaptation to arid conditions
CAM plant
A plant where the stomata in the leaves remain shut during the day to reduce evapotranspiration, but open at night to collect CO2
Reduction phase
3-phosphoglycerate first gains a phosphate group from an ATP molecule (which is converted to ADP). The molecule is then reduced by NADPH (which is converted to NADP+ and H+) in a reaction that releases a phosphate group.
Carbohydrate reformation
CO2 being re-purposed and reformatted into different molecules
Regeneration phase
All adp and phosphate, and G3P