# AI / Artificial Intelligence

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The intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. | Artificial intelligence |

Within artificial intelligence, a __________ is one that maximizes its expected utility, given its current knowledge. | Rational Agent |

A field of computer science and linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human languages. | Natural Language Processing |

An autonomous entity which observes through sensors and acts upon an environment using actuators and directs its activity towards achieving goals. | Intelligent Agent |

Translation of information into symbols to facilitate inferencing from those information elements, and the creation of new elements of information. | Knowledge Representation (KR) |

An area of computer science and mathematical logic dedicated to understand different aspects of thinking. | Automated Reasoning |

An agent that acts so as to achieve the best outcome or, when there is uncertainty, the best expected outcome. | Rational Agent |

This doctrine holds that all knowledge can be characterized by logical theories connected, ultimately, to ___________ that correspond to sensory inputs. | Observation Sentences |

Attempted to analyze the acquisition of knowledge from experience. | Confirmation Theory |

Gödel's idea on the inherent limitations of all but the most trivial axiomatic systems capable of doing arithmetic. | Incompleteness Theorem |

Provides a mathematical framework for modeling decision-making in situations where outcomes are partly random and partly under the control of a decision maker. | Markov Decision Processes (MDPs) |

A subdiscipline of psychology exploring internal mental processes. It is the study of how people perceive, remember, think, speak, and solve problems.[1] | Cognitive Psychology |

The interdisciplinary scientific study of the mind and its processes. It examines what cognition is, what it does and how it works. | Cognitive Science |

Modern control theory, especially the branch known as stochastic optimal control, has as its goal the design of systems that maximize an ___________over time. | Objective Function |

An interdisciplinary field dealing with the statistical or rule-based modeling of natural language from a computational perspective. | Computational Linguistics |

Involves analysis of how to reason accurately and effectively and how best to use a set of symbols to represent a set of facts within a knowledge domain. | Knowledge Representation (KR) |

Takes physical patterns (symbols), combining them into structures (expressions) and manipulating them (using processes) to produce new expressions. | Physical Symbol System |

A single layer neural network. Consists of a weight, a bias and a summation function. | Adaline (Adaptive Linear Neuron) |

This theorem says that the learning algorithm can adjust the connection strengths of a perceptron to match any input data, provided such a match exists. | Perceptron Convergence Theorem |

A common method of training artificial neural networks so as to minimize the objective function. | Back-Propagation |

A statistical Markov model in which the system being modeled is assumed to be a Markov process with unobserved states. Can be considered as the simplest dynamic Bayesian network. | Hidden Markov Models |

That which strives for "machines that think, that learn and that create." First at Minsky's symposium in 2004. | Human-Level AI |

The search for a universal algorithm for learning and acting in any environment. Also known as Strong AI. | Artificial General Intelligence |

An artificial intelligence (AI) that has a positive rather than negative effect on humanity. | Friendly AI |

The branch of philosophy concerned with the nature and scope (limitations) of knowledge. | Epistemology |

A method in statistics of inference used to update the probability estimate for a hypothesis as additional evidence is learned. | Bayesian Inference |

A subfield of artificial intelligence (more particularly computational intelligence) that involves combinatorial optimization problems. | Evolutionary Computation |

Refers to the memoryless property of a stochastic process. | Markov Property |