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Arborist Study Course

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Beth Starr

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abscission zone

area at the base of the petiole where cellular breakdown leads to leaf and fruit drop

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97 questions
Abscission zone
Area at the base of the petiole where cellular breakdown leads to leaf and fruit drop
Absorbing roots
Fine, fibrous roots that take up water and minerals. Most absorbing roots are within the top 12" (30 cm) of soil.
Aerial roots
Aboveground roots. Usually adventitious in nature and sometimes having unique adaptive functions.
Adventitious bud
Bud arising from a place other than a leaf axil or shoot tip, usually as a result of hormonal triggers.
Polant with seeds borne in an ovary. Consists of two large groups: monocotyledons (grasses, palms, and related plants) and dicotyledons (most woody trees, shrubs, herbaceous plants, and related plants). Contrast with gymnosperms.
Red or purple pigment responsible for those colors in some parts of trees and other plants. Compare to carotenoid.
Substance applied to the foliage of plants to reduce water loss (transpiration).
Apical bud
Bud at the tip of a twig or shoot.
Apical dominance
Condition in which the terminal bud inhibits the growth and development of the lateral buds on the same stem formed during the same season.
Apical meristem
Growing point at the tips of shoots and roots.
Free spaces in plant tissue. Includes cell walls and intracellular spaces.
Plant hormone or substance that promotes or regulates the growth and development of plants. Produced at sites where cells are dividing, primarily in the shoot tips. Auxin-like compounds may be synthetically produced.
Axial transport
Movement of water, minerals, or photosynthates longitudinally within a tree.
Axillary bud
Bud in the axil of a leaf. Lateral bud.
Branch bark ridge
Raised strip of bark at the top of a branch union, where the growth and expansion of the trunk or parent stem and adjoining branch push the bark into a ridge.
Branch collar
Area where a branch joins another branch or trunk that is created by the overlapping vascular tissues from both the branch and the trunk. Typically enlarged at the base of the branch
(1) small lateral or terminal protuberance on the stem of a plant that may develop into a flower or shoot. (2) undeveloped flower or shoot containing a meristematic growing point.
Buttress root
Roots at the trunk base that help support the tree and equalize mechanical stress.
Thin layer(s) of meristematic cells that give rise (outward) to the phloem and (inward) to the xylem, increasing stem and root diameter.
Compound, combining carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, that is produced by plants as a result of photosynthesis. Sugars and starches.
Yellow, orange, or red pigment responsible for those colors in some parts of trees and other plants. Compare to anthocyanin.
Complex carbohydrate found in the cellular walls of the majority of plants and algae and certain fungi.
Green pigment of plants found in chloroplasts. Captures the energy of the sun and is essential in photosynthesis.
Specialized organelle found in some cells. Site of photosynthesis.
Compartmentalization of Decay in Trees
Companion cell
Specialized cell in the angiosperm phloem derived from the same parent cell as the closely associated, immediately adjacent sieve-tube member.
Natural defense process in trees by which chemical and physical boundaries are created that act to limit the spread of disease and decay organisms.
Cork cambium
Meristematic tissue from which the corky, protective outer layer of bark is formed.
Waxy layer outside the epidermis of a leaf that reduces water loss and resists insect damage.
Plant hormone involved in cell division, leaf expansion, and other physiological process. Compounds with cytokinin-like activity may be synthetically produced.
Tree or other plant that sheds all of its leaves according to a genetically scheduled cycle as impacted by climate factors (usually during the cold season in temperate zones). Contrast evergreen.
Rounded or spreading growth habit of the tree crown. Contrast with excurrent.
Process in the development of cells in which they become specialized for various functions.
Diffuse porous
Pattern of wood development in which the vessels and vessel sizes are distributed evenly throughout the annual ring. Contrast with ring porous.
In a period of dormancy
Study of the relationships among organisms and other living and nonliving elements of their environment.
Arising from a latent adventitious bud (growth point). Usually in reference to a shoot.
Tree or other plant that does NOT shed all of its foliage annually. Contrast with deciduous.
Tree growth habit characterized by a central leader and pyramidal crown. Contrast with decurrent.
(1) elongated, tapering, thick-walled cell that provides strength to wood. (2) smallest component of a rope.
Large, divided leaf structures found in palms and ferns.
Plant growth produced as a response to the force of gravity, either positive, as in the direction of gravity (roots) or negative, as in opposite the direction of gravity (shoots).
Growth ring
Rings of xylem that are visible in a cross section of the stem, branches and roots of some trees. In temperate zones, the rings typically represent one year of growth and are sometimes referred to as annual rings.
Guard cell
Pair of specialized cells that regulate the opening and closing of a stomate.
Plants with exposed seeds, usually within cones. Contrast with angiosperm.
Wood that is altered (inward) from sapwood and provides chemical defense against decay-causing organisms and continues to provide structural strength to the trunk. Trees may or may not have heartwood. Contrast with sapwood.
Included bark
Bark that becomes embedded in a crotch (union) between branch and trunk or between codominant stems. Causes a weak structure.
Cluster of flowers
Region of the stem between two successive nodes. Contrast with node.
Lateral bud
Vegetative bud on the side of a stem. Contrast with terminal bud.
Lateral root
Root that arises by cell division in the pericycle of the parent root and then penetrates the cortex and epidermis.
Leaf axil
Point of attachment of a leaf petiole to a stem.
Small opening in the bark that permits the exchange of gases.
Organic substance that impregnates certain cell walls to thicken and strengthen the cell to reduce susceptibility to decay and pest damage.
Undifferentiated tissue in which active cell division takes place. Found in the root tips, buds, cambium, cork cambium and latent buds.
See monocotyledon
Plant with an embryo that has on seed leaf (cotyledon). Examples are grasses and palms. Contrast with dicotyledon.
Symbiotic association between certain fungi and the roots of a plant.
Slightly enlarged portion of a stem where leaves and buds arise. Contrast with internode.
Diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane from a region of higher water potential (lower salt concentration) to a region of lower water potential (higher salt concentration).
Parenchyma cell
Thin-walled, living cells essential in photosynthesis, radial transport, energy storage and production of protective compounds
The outer layers of tissue of woody roots and stems, consisting of the cork cambium and the tissues produced by it, such as bark.
Stalk or support axis of a leaf.
Plant vascular tissue that transport photosynthates and growth regulators. Situated on the inside of the bark, just outside the cambium. Is bidirectional (transports up and down). Contrast with xylem.
General term for the sugars and other carbohydrates produced during photosynthesis.
Process in green plants (and in algae and some bacteria) by which light energy is used to form glucose (chemical energy) from water and carbon dioxide.
Influence of light on the direction of plant growth. Tendency of plants to grow toward light
Plant growth regulator
Compound effective in small quantities that affects the growth and/or development of plants. May be naturally produced (hormone) or synthetic. See plant hormone.
Plant hormone
Substance produced by a plant that, in low concentrations, affects physiological processes such as growth and development, often at a distance from the substance point of origin. See plant growth regulator.
Primary growth
Root and stem growth in length. Occurs at the apical meristems and lateral meristems of all vascular plants
Process of increasing plant numbers, both sexually and asexually.
Radial transport
Lateral movement of substances, perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the tree or stem.
Parenchyma tissues that extend radially across the xylem and phloem of a tree and function in transport, storage, structural strength and defense.
Reaction zone
Natural boundary formed chemically within a tree to separate damaged wood from existing healthy wood. Important in the process of compartmentalization.
In plants, process by which carbohydrates are converted into energy by using oxygen.
Ring porous
Pattern of wood development in which the large-diameter vessels are concentrated in the earlywood. Contrast with diffuse porous.
Root crown
Area where the main roots join the plant stem, usually at or near ground level. Root collar.
Root initiation zone
Region at the base of a palm stem where lateral roots emerge.
Root mat
Dense network of roots near the base of a palm.
Outer wood (xylem)that is active in longitudinal transport of water and minerals. Contrast with heartwood.
Secondary growth
Increase in root and stem girth or diameter. Occurs at lateral meristems in some vascular plants such as dicots.
Sieve cell
Long, slender phloem cell in gymnosperms.
Plant part that uses or stores more energy than it produces.
Sinker root
Downward-growing roots that provide anchorage and take up water and minerals. Especially useful during periods of drought.
In physiology, plant part that produces carbohydrates. Mature leaves are sources.
Small pores, between two guard cells on the undersides of leaves and other green plant parts, through which gasses are exchanged and water loss is regulated.
Association of two different types of living organisms that is often, but not always, beneficial to each.
Entire mass of protoplasm of all the cells in a plant, interconnected by plasmodesmata. Symplast. Contrast with apoplasm.
Tap root
Central, vertical root growing directly below the main stem or trunk that may or may not persist into plant maturity.
Region lying between the tropics and the poles that has relatively moderate temperatures.
Terminal bud
Bud at the tip of a twig or shoot.
Elongated, tapering xylem cell adapted for the support and transport of water and elements.
Water vapor loss through the stomata of leaves.
Tendency of growth or variation of a plant in response to an external stimulus such as gravity (geotropism) or light (phototropism).
End-to-end, tubelike, water-conducting cells in the xylem of angiosperms.
Main water-and mineral-conducting (unidirectional, up only) tissue in trees and other plants. Provides structural support. Arises (inward) from the cambium and becomes wood after lignifying. Contrast with phloem.