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types of cloud computing

1. infrastructure as a service (IaaS) 2. platform as a service (PaaS) 3. software as a service (SaaS)

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AWS CCP - Details



157 questions
Types of cloud computing
1. infrastructure as a service (IaaS) 2. platform as a service (PaaS) 3. software as a service (SaaS)
Types of Deployments
1. Public (AWS, Azure) 2. Hybrid 3. Private - You manage the data center yourself. (Openstack)
Advantages of the Cloud
1. Trade capital expense for variable expense 2. Benefit from massive economies of scale 3. Stop guessing about capacity 4. Increase speed and agility 5. Stop spending money running and maintaining data centers 6. Go global in minutes
What is a region?
A geographical area containing at least 2 availability zones.
What is an availability zone?
A data center or cluster of data centers within a region.
What is an edge location?
Endpoint for AWS used for caching content. Makes it possible to only have to download data from one location to another once to cache it.
What should you consider when choosing the right AWS region?
1. Data sovereignty laws 2. Latency to end users (where are the majority of your users?) 3. What AWS services do you need?
Name the AWS support plans
Basic, developer, business, enterprise
Cost and details of BASIC support plan
Free customer service without tech support access to community forums
Cost and details of DEVELOPER support plan
$29/mo (scales based on usage) For when you’re experimenting with AWS One primary contact gets access to tech support with a response within 12-24 hours.
Cost and details of BUSINESS support plan
$100/mo (scales based on usage) Production use of AWS 24/7 phone and chat support 1-hour urgent case response Help with common 3rd party software Full access to AWS trusted advisor for optimizing infrastructure Access to AWS support API
Cost and details of ENTERPRISE support plan
$15,000/mo (scales based on usage) Mission-critical use of AWS All features of business PLUS: An assigned Technical Account Manager A Support Concierge Access to event management to support product launches 15-minute response to critical support cases
IAM user access types
1. programmatic access (access key and secret access key) 2. AWS management console access (enables a password for users) 3. SDKs
What is a root account?
The email address used to set up the account.
Should you use the root account to set up resources in AWS?
No, you should make users and groups, then assign policies to them.
IAM Best Practices:
Only use root account to create the account. Then create users to login. One user = one human. Apply policies to groups of users, not individual users. Have a strong password rotation policy. Always enable MFA wherever possible. Using roles is better than access keys.
What should you use to audit the permissions of your users? What kind of info does that service give you?
IAM Credential Report. It gives you: Password usage and change dates. Activity/rotation status of access keys. Whether MFA is enabled.
What is an S3 bucket?
A folder to store flat files. Object-based storage (key:value pair)
True or false: Different S3 buckets can have the same name?
False. Bucket names must be unique globally.
What is the format of S3 bucket URLs
S3 + region + + /bucketName ex.
What is Read after Write consistency?
For PUTS of a new object. You can view a new file immediately after putting it into S3.
What is Eventual Consistency?
For update PUTS and DELETES of an object. May take time to see these updates take place in an S3 bucket. Give it some time to propogate in the bucket before trying to view the change.
Guarantees of S3
99.99% availability for the platform. 99.999999999% durability of S3 information. (11 "9"s)
Features of S3
1. Tiered Storage 2. Lifecycle management 3. Versioning 4. Encryption 5. Secure data using access control lists and bucket policies
What is the difference between access control lists and bucket policies?
ACLs are for adding policies to individual files. BPs are for adding policies to a whole bucket.
Name the S3 storage classes
1. S3 Standard 2. S3 - IA (Infrequently Accessed) 3. S3 One Zone - IA 4. S3 Intelligent Tiering 5. S3 Glacier 6. S3 Glacier Deep Archive 7. S3 Outposts
Details of S3 Standard
11 "9"s durability 99.99% availability Stored across multiple devices and facilities Designed to sustain the loss of two facilities concurrently
Details of S3 - IA
For data used less frequently, but may need rapid access at some point Lower fee than S3, but are charged a retrieval fee for data
Details of S3 One Zone - IA
Lower-cost option Infrequently accessed data, but does not require multiple availability zone data resilience.
Details of S3 Intelligent Tiering
Optimize costs by auto-moving data to the most cost-effective access tier, w/o performance impact or operational overhead.
Details of S3 Glacier
Secure, durable, and low-cost for archiving data. Retrievable from minutes to hours.
Details of S3 Glacier Deep Archive
Lowest-cost storage class where a retrieval time of 12 hours is acceptable.
Details of S3 Outposts
Deliver object storage to on-premises AWS Outpost environments
What is transfer acceleration?
Enables quick and safe transfer over long distances between user and s3 bucket. Takes advantage of edge locations. As data arrives at an edge location, data is routed to S3 over an optimized network path.
What is S3 cross-region replication?
Allows to have two buckets. Every time a file is uploaded to the primary bucket, it is also backed up in a second one for file recovery purposes.
3 Ways to restrict bucket access
1. bucket policies 2. Object policies 3. IAM user/group policies
What types of sites can be hosted with S3?
Static sites only. If it needs a database, it will not work with S3.
What is CloudFront?
AWS's content delivery network (CDN) that delivers web content to users based on their location, the site’s origin, and a content delivery server. Can be used to deliver an entire website.
What is the process of CloudFront?
Users query an edge location for a file. If the EL does not already have that file cached, it will connect to the origin to get it. That file is then streamed to the user. Once that happens once, that file is cached at the edge location for the TTL (time to live (default is 24 hours)) so that more users can get it without connecting to the origin. Object cache can be cleared, but user will be charged.
What is EC2?
Elastic Compute Cloud. Basically a virtual server in the cloud. Reduces the time to obtain and boot server instances to minutes.
Name the 4 different kinds of options for EC2
1. On-Demand 2. Reserved 3. Spot 4. Dedicated Hosts
Name and describe the 3 different pricing types of reserved EC2
1. Standard Reserve - More upfront and longer the contract, bigger the discount. Up to 75% off. Can't change between the instance families. 2. Convertible Reserve - 54% off on capability to change the attributes of the RI as long as the exchange results in the creation of reserved instances of equal or greater value. 3. Scheduled Reserve - Available to launch within scheduled time windows that you reserve.
What is EBS?
A virtual disk in the cloud that the servers run off of. Allows to create storage volumes attached to EC2 instances. Once attached, can create a file system, run a database, or use them in any other way you would use a block device. Volumes are placed in a specific Availability Zone, where they are automatically replicated to protect you from the failure of a single component.
Name and describe the 2 types of SSD
1. General Purpose SSD (GP2) - balances price and performance for a wide variety of workloads. 2. Provisioned IOPS SSD (IO1) - Highest-performance SSD volume for mission-critical low-latency or high-throughput workloads
Name and describe the types of magnetic EBS volumes
1. Throughput Optimized HDD (ST1) - Low cost volume designed for frequently accessed, throughput-intensive workloads 2. Cold HDD (SC1) - lowest cost hdd volume designed for less frequently accessed workloads (file servers)
What are the common ports?
1. Linux = SSH (Port 22) 2. Microsoft = Remote Desktop Protocol (Port 3389) 3. HTTP (Port 80) 4. HTTPS (Port 443)
What does a firewall do?
Keeps your computer from being overwhelmed by too many ports communicating with it.
What are the 3 types of load balancers?
Application, network, and classic
What is the difference between relational and non-relational databases?
Relational databases consist of tables that can relate to other tables. Non-relational are more flexible - columns can vary without affecting the rows. NR databases store their info in key:value pairs. Like relational, but in JSON (and that JSON can be nested).
What are the two different ways of processing queries and how do they differ?
OLTP (Online Transaction Processing) - Handles standard queries OLAP (Online Analytics Processing) - Handles a huge number of records in queries. Used in data warehousing (running complex queries without performance hits.)
What is Elasticache?
Service making it easy to deploy, operate, and scale in-memory caches in the cloud. A way of improving performance of web apps by caching the most common queries.
What is DNS?
A Domain Name System that computers use to find the correct IP address. Used to direct traffic globally and register a domain name.
What is Cloud Formation?
A service that helps model and set up your AWS resources so that you can spend your time focusing on your apps instead. Creates a template describing which resources you'll need then provisions and configures them for you. Free to use, but the resources it provisions may not be.
What is the main difference between Cloud Formation and Elastic Beanstalk?
They are meant for similar functionality, but Elastic Beanstalk is limited in what it can provision while CF is not.
What are all of the services listed in AWS's "Compute" section?
EC2 Lightsail Lambda Batch Elastic Beanstalk Serverless Application Repository AWS Outposts EC2 Image Builder
What is the difference between 'scaling up' and 'scaling out'?
Scale up - increasing the amount of RAM or CPU scale out - more common. add multiple virtual machines behind the elastic load balancer.
Which AWS services are global?
IAM Route53 CloudFront SNS SES
Which AWS services can be used on-premise?
Snowball Snowball Edge Storage Gateway CodeDeploy Opsworks IoT Greengrass
What is CloudWatch?
Service used to monitor performance of AWS resources or apps running in AWS. When used with EC2, will monitor every 5 mins by default, or every 1 min if default monitoring is turned on. Can create alarms to trigger notifications.
What kinds of things does CloudWatch monitor for?
Compute (EC2, autoscaling, load balancers, Route53 health checks) Storage and Content Delivery (EBS volumes, storage gateways, cloudfront)
What is AWS Systems Manager?
Allows you to manage EC2s at scale by running commands across a fleet of EC2's at once. Can be on AWS and on-premise. Integrates with CloudWatch to give a dashboard of entire estate.
What is the Service Health Dashboard?
Easy way of seeing health and history of services in ALL regions (not just your used services). Helps see outages.
What is the Personal Health Dashboard
A way of seeing the health and history of the services you are using. Provides proactive notifications for any scheduled activities.
What are the differences between S3, EBS, and EFS?
S3 - file storage use without a database EBS - can store files, but without retrievability ad redundancy. perfect for installing databases and op systems. EFS (Elastic File System) - File storage without a set database size. Keeps growing and resizing to fit database. Multiple EC2 instances can access the same EFS.
What is Global Accelerator?
Uses Amazon's dedicated network to direct traffic to optimal endpoints. Improves performance by up to 60%. Helps increase reliability when the internet is congested.
Capex vs Opex
Capex - capital expenditure (fixed cost paid up-front) Opex - operational expenditure (pay as you use)
What are the 3 fundamental drivers of cost with AWS?
1. compute 2. storage 3. outbound data
What are the 4 best practices for AWS billing?
1. understand the fundamentals of pricing 2. start early with cost optimization (plan ahead to make it easier to manage costs) 3. maximize the power of flexibility (Only pay for what you're actually using) 4. Use the right pricing model for the job (on-demand, dedicated instances, spot, reserved)
What AWS services are free?
Amazon VPC Elastic Beanstalk CloudFormation IAM Auto Scaling Opsworks Consolidated Billing
Which services are free but may use resources that are not?
Elastic Beanstalk CloudFormation Auto Scaling Opsworks
What determines EC2 pricing?
Clock hours of server time Instance type Pricing model Number of instances Load balancing Detailed monitoring Auto scaling Elastic IP addresses Operating systems and software packages
What determines Lambda pricing?
Requests - 1 million free per month, then 20 cents per every 1 million thereafter duration - 400,000 GB-seconds free per month, then less than 1 cent for every GB-second thereafter additional charges if lambda uses other services (like S3)
What determines pricing for EBS?
Volumes (per GB) snapshots (per GB) data transfer
What determines pricing for S3?
Storage class storage requests (GET, PUT, COPY) data transfer
What determines pricing for Glacier?
Storage data retrieval times (cost goes down as retrieval time goes up)
What is Snowball?
A physical gigantic disk to move your data in and out of the cloud.
What determines pricing for Snowball?
Service fee per job ($200 for 50 TB, $250 for 80 TB) daily charge (first 10 days free, then $15/day) data transfer (into S3 is free. from S3 is not) - outbound data.
What determines price for RDS?
Clock hours of server time Database characteristics Database purchase types Number of DB instances Provisioned storage Additional storage requests Deployment types Data transfers
What determines DynamoDB pricing?
Provisioned throughput (you choose how much activity the table can handle)
What determines CloudFront pricing?
Traffic distribution Requests Data transfer out