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Biology Unit 2


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[Front]


What do macromolecules do?
[Back]


Macromolecules build living cells and take part in numerous biochemical reactions.

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What do macromolecules do?
Macromolecules build living cells and take part in numerous biochemical reactions.
Glucose definition
Glucose is the building block of carbohydrates, such as starch and cellulose.
Which 2 groups do amino acids have?
Amino group NH2 carboxyl group COOH
How do you know its a fatty acid
Long chain of carbons with COOH at the end
How do you know the monomer is a sugar
Ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is 2:1
How do you know wether its a ribose or a glucose?
Ribose: 5 carbons glucose: 6 carbons
Metabolism definition
Metabolism is all of the enzymatic reactions that take place inside a living organism.
Anabolism definition (3)
Synthesis of complex molecules from simpler molecules requires the input of energy by condensation reaction
Catabolism definition (3)
Catabolism is the breakdown of complex molecules into simpler molecules requires input of energy by hydrolysis
Hydrolysis reaction definition
Hydrolysis reaction is the breaking of chemical bonds by the addition of water molecules.
Condensation reaction
Condensation reaction refers to the reaction in which two smaller organic molecules combine to form a larger molecule with the accompanied formation of water or some other simple molecule.
Metabolism: ... + ...
Anabolism + catabolism
What did Friedrich Wöhler demonstrate (3)
He demonstrated that a by-product of life could be artificially synthesized in a laboratory. His experiment was the first one to show that the synthesis of an organic compound from two inorganic molecules was achievable. Disproved the theory of vitalism
What does the theory of vitalism state
Organic compounds could only be synthesised by living organisms as they possessed an 'element' that non-living things did not have.
Describe the relationship between water and other polar and non-polar molecules
Polar: they are hydrophilic, as water attacts other polar or charged molecules non-polar: they are hydrophobic, there is no attraction between them and water
Why does water have it's properties
Hydrogen bonds between the molecules
What's the water property cohesion?
The tendency of water molecules to stick to each other
What's responsible for the surface tension of water? Explain
Hydrogen bonds Even though they're weak, when there's many they're strong
What's the water property adhesion?
The interaction water molecules have with other different molecules, materials or surfaces
What's capillary action?
The movement of water molecules and all the things that are dissolved in it within thin spaces without relying on gravity
Explain high specific heat capacity of water
In order to break down the hydrogen bonds in water, a high amount of energy is needed.
What can water dissolve? (2)
Ionic compounds polar compounds
Name how water is beneficial to living organisms a. cohesive b. adhesive c. thermal d. solvent
A. Permits insects to float on the surface of water to catch their prey b. Capillary action assists the pumping action of the heart to help blood move through blood vessels c. The high specific heat capacity of water makes aquatic ecosystems more stable d. Water in blood plasma dissolves a range of solutes and gases, which makes it possible for blood to transport nutrients and gases around the body
Which 3 types of compounds need something else to be transported in blood, and what are they transported in/with?
Fats: lipoproteins cholesterol: lipoprotein oxygen: bound to protein called hemoglobin
What are the 3 classifications of carbohydrates?
Monosaccharides disaccharides polysaccharides
Whats the relationship between monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides and sugar?
Monosaccharides and disaccharides are sugars polysaccharides are made of the condensation of sugars
How are disaccharides made and what's the bond?
With a condensation reaction, releasing one water molecule The bond formed is a glycosidic bond
What's the structure of starch? (also which direction are the glucose monomers oriented)
Mixture of 2 polysaccharides: amylopectin amylose all glucose monomers are oriented to the same direction
Amylopectin
In starch branched arrangement of glucose molecules
Amylose
In starch linear arrangement of glucose molecules
What's the function of starch?
It's used to store energy in plants Plants store starch in the roots and stems
What's the difference between starch and cellulose?
In starch molecules, all glucose monomers are oriented in the same direction. In contrast, cellulose molecules are made up of glucose monomers that rotate 180 degrees around the backbone chain.
What's the function of cellulose? (2)
Gives plant cell walls extra strength Protects the cell from over-expanding and bursting
What's the function of glycogen?
Stores energy (carbohydrates) in animals
How is water a coolant?
It cools down the skin by taking energy in the form of heat
What are the characteristics of lipids? (3)
Hydrophobic non-polar insoluble in water
What are triglycerides (which group) how are triglycerides formed what bonds are created
Lipids Triglycerides are formed by condensation reactions between one glycerol and three fatty acids Ester bonds are created
What are the 4 categories of unsaturated fatty acids?
Monounsaturated polyunsaturated cis trans
What's the difference between saturated and unsaturated (straight or bent)?
Saturated: always straight unsaturated: can be straight or bent
Are steroids lipids? If yes why?
Because they are hydrophobic and insoluble in water
What's HDL?
High density lipoprotein
What's LDL?
Low density lipoprotein
What's an advantage of a lipid over a carbohydrate?
It has more energy storage, act as thermal insulators
Why are lipids better as a long term storage than carbohydrates? (2)
A gram of lipid gives twice the amount of energy as a gram of glycogen Lipids are stored in pure form, while carbohydrates need water with them
What are the 5 key properties of lipids?
Waterproof Insulator (thermal) Solubility: they're insoluble Energy content is high Density: less dense than water
How are trans fats made? (3)
They are formed by adding hydrogen to unsaturated fats under pressure
What are the risks when consuming a high content of lipids? (3 diseases)
Diabetes Coronary heart disease (CHD) certain types of cancer
How are fats linked to CHD? (2 yes no)
There has been evidence found that it links, as a high concentration of trans fats has been found in diseased arteries. But there are people rich in saturated fats who have a vey low incidence of CHD
How would you draw a polypeptide
Left: NH2 In the middle: R group, H Right: COOH (2 Os and one H binding)
Where do we get amino acids from?
When you ingest proteins, they are later digested and absorbed into the bloodstream as amino acids
What are genes?
Sections of DNA that contain the instruction for all polypeptides of an organism
Define polypeptide + bods + reaction
A sequence of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds These peptide bonds between each amino acid are the result of a condensation reaction.
How is the genes coding transmitted from the DNA to the ribosome?
Genetic material is transcribed into the ribonucleic acid (mRNA) mRNA carries the instructions for the amino acid sequence to the ribosomes (in the cytoplasm)
How many polypeptides does 1 gene code for?
1 or more than 1 linked together
What does hemoglobin consist of? (2)
Four polypeptide chains: 2 alpha and 2 beta chains non protein part called hemo group
How is the polypeptides conformation determined? (4 steps)
R group determines types of bonds and interactions with other molecules how the chain or chain's fold up conformation
What can cause change in the protein's conformation? (2)
A change in the order of amino acids gene mutation
What's primary structure?
The sequence of amino acids in a protein
What's secondary structure?
The folding of the chains on themselves to from pleated sheets or alpha helixes
What's tertiary structure?
When the polypeptide folds and coils to form a complex 3D shape
What's quaternary structure? where does it exist?
Refers to the way the multiple subunits are held together in a multi-subunit complex only occurs in proteins made up of two or more polypeptide chains
What's a proteonome
Unique set of proteins coded by their genome
What's a genome
Unique DNA content that each organism has
How does proteonome analysis help the medical industry
To treat certain cancers, the proteonome of a patient's cancer cells is analysed to determine if a particular chemotherapy will be successful