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Blood Chapter

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How much blood does the average adult have?

5 liters

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Blood Chapter - Details



88 questions
The buffy coat consists of ____ and ____?
The buffy coat consists of leukocytes and platelets
What is the percentage of erythrocytes?
44 percent of erythrocytes
Def. of Hematocrit
Percentage of red blood cells or erythrocytes
What are the 7 functions of blood?
1. Gas exchange. 2. Distribution of solutes 3. Performing immune functions 4. Maintaining body temp 5. Sealing blood vessels by forming clots 6. Preserving acid- base homeostasis 7. Stabilizing blood pressure
What are some plasma solutes?
Nutrients, Wastes, electrolytes, hormones
Def of bood pressure
Blood pressure is the volume of blood in the circulation
What are the 4 plasma proteins?
1. Albumin 2. Immune proteins 3. Transport proteins 4. Clotting proteins
- Plasma protein - Made in the liver - Maintains osmotic pressure (the pressure that draws water into blood via osmosis
Transport proteins
- Plasma protein - Made in the liver - Bind and transport hydrophobic compounds (fats and steriods) through blood
What are the plasma proteins of the immune system called?
Y-globulines, also known as antibodies
Clotting proteins
- plasma protein - made in the liver. Collection of platelets and clotting proteins, stops bleeding from an injured blood vessel
Remaining 1% of plasma consists of?
Small solutes that dissolve in the water portion of the plasma and form a solution
The solutes in the plasma consists of?
Glucose, amino acids, nitrogenous waste, ions, small amounts of oxygen and carbon dioxide
Immune System
The body's defense system against disease
Specialized fluid formed in the tissue spaces that returns excess fluid and protein molecules to the blood
Lymphatic vessels
Vessels that carry lymph to its eventual return to the circulatory system
Interstitial fluid
Fluid located in the microscopic spaces between the cells
Lymphatic capillaries
Tiny blind ended tubes distributed in the tissue spaces
Lymph nodes
Biological filtration of lymph on its way to the circulatory system
Afferent lymph vessels
Small lymphatic vessels that carry lymphatic fluid toward a lymph note
Efferent lymph vessels
Small lymphatic vessels that carry lymphatic fluid away from a lymph node
Nonspecific immunity
Protective mechanisms that provide immediate, generic protection agains any bacteria, toxin or other injurious particle, also called innate immunity
Innate immunity
Same as nonspecific immunity
Inflammatory response
Nonspecific immune process produced in response to injury and resulting in redness, pain, heat and swelling and promoting movement of white blood cells to the affected area
Specific immunity
The protective mechanisms that provide specific protection against certain types of bacteria or toxins
Adaptive immunity
Another name for specific immunity
Deliberate artificial expose to disease to produce acquired immunity
Substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates a specific substance that has entered the body
The immune system is not a system, instead it contains?
Proteins and cells located in the blood and the tissues of other systems, including the lymphatic system
Lymphatic system consists of 2 main components:
1. Lymphatic vessels 2. Lymphatic tissue and lymphatic organs
Lymphatic capillaries are?
Lymphatic capillaries form weblike networks that surround blood capillary beds
How are lymphatic capillaries different than blood capillaries
1.) lymphatic capillaries are blind-ended, meaning a one way system that ONLY moves Lymph away from the tissues. 2.) The cells of the lymphatic capillaries are not tightly joined, instead able to flap open and closed. 3.)Blood cap. is a 2 way system that moves blood toward and away from tissues. 4.) Blood cap. epithelial cells form the walls and are tightly joined
What's an important role that lymph nodes do?
Lymph nodes limits the spread of pathogens through the body by acting as a filter and trapping pathogens, preventing them from traveling elsewhere
Reticular tissue contains ____ and ____?
Specialized cells and thin reticular fibers
What are the cell types of the lymphoid tissues and organs?
1. Lymphoid organs houses Lymphocytes (B & T) 2. Phagocytes( macrophages & dendritic cells) 3. Reticular cells (reticular fibers composed of specialized thin collagen protein, are produced by reticular cells
Mucosa- associated lymphatic tissue (MALT) protects what?
MALT protects mucous membranes such as the oral and nasal cavity- which are exposed by large #'s of pathogens
MALT def.
Loosely organized clusters of lymphoid tissue
Much of MALT consists of?
Clusters of B & T cells
Def. Lymphoid folicles/ lympphoid nodules and what they consist of?
Are specialized MALT and consists of spherical clusters. Consists primarily of B cells
Def germinal centers
When lymphoid follicles are exposed to pathogens, they develop light staining regions. Where the B cells are actively dividing
Def lymph nodes
Clusters of lymphatic tissue located along lymphatic vessels throughout the body
Where do we find clusters of lymph nodes?
1. Axillary lymph nodes (under pits) 2. cervical lymph nodes (neck) 3. inguinal lymph nodes (groin) 4. mesenteric lymph nodes (abdominal cavity and abdominal organs)
Reticular fibers are filled with?
Macrophages, lymphocyes, and dendritic cells
B cell rich lymphoid follicles, divided by inward extensions of the capsule called trabeculae.
1st Step of lymph node filtering lymph
1. Lymph flows into lymph node through many small lymphatic vessels called afferent lymphatic vessels
2nd step of lymph node filtering lymph
2. Once in lymph node, enters hollow area called subcapsular sinus
3rd step of lymph node filtering lymph
3. After it enters subcapsular sinus, it flows through cortical sinuses
What happens when lymph passes through the subcapsular sinus and cortical sinus?
As lymph passes through these sinuses, pathogens and immune cells(dendritic cells) migrate into lymphoid nodule to initiate an immune response
4th step of lymph node filtering lymph
4. Lymph contiues to flow thorugh cortical sinus and medullary sinuses, then drains out through efferent lymphatic vessels
What happens when pathogens enter a lymph node and B cells are activated?
The germinal centers of the lymphoid follicles enlarge, causes whole lymph node to swell
Red pulp contains what?
Red pulp contains macrophages that destroy old eythrocytes