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cardiovascular


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[Front]


what does arteries do to the blood
[Back]


takes blood away from heart

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What does arteries do to the blood
Takes blood away from heart
Three types of arteries
Elastic, muscular, arterioles
What does veins do to blood
Takes blood to the heart
Three types of veins
Venules, small, medium, and large veins
What can capillaries do
Can exchange substances with tissue
What type of vessels are capillaries and what do they do
Exchange vessels, exchange of nutrients, gases and waste with tissue
What type of vessels are arterioles and what do they do
Resistance vessels, they constrict and dialte to adjust blood pressure
What type of vessels are muscular arteries and what does it do
Distributing vessels,constrict and dialte to adjust blood pressure
What continuous passage does the muscular arteris have
From heart to blood vessels to tissue back to blood vessel and to heart
Elastic arteries have what type of vessels
Conducting vessles for blood pressure
Characteristics of continuous capillary
Least permeable and most common, no gaps between endothelial cells
Fenestrated capillary are
Large fenestrations increase permeabillity and are permeable to large molecules
Sinusoidal capillary occurs in special locations like
Liver, bone marrow, spleen, endocrine glands
Sinusoidal capillary allows...
Passage of large molecules and cells
What are the structures of capillary beds
Metarteriole (scattered smooth muscles), thoroughfare channels
What are three tunics that can be found in blood vessels
Tunica intima, tunica media, tunica externa (adventitia)
What type of tissue is the endothelium
Simple squamous epithelium
In the tunica externa or adventita, what is vasa vasorum
Blood vessles that nourish blood vessels
What type of layer is the tunica intima
Endothelium subendothelial layer
What makes veins different from arteries
Veins have a larger lumen and less elastic tissue which makes it collapse more easily
Characteristics for elastic arteries
Has more elastic fibers less muscle, dont contrict or dilate but recoiled when strectched
Do muscular arteries constrict and dilate, if so for what
Yes, to regulate flow of blood to different area
Arterioles can
Vasoconstrict and vasodilate
Small veins have
0.2-0.3 mm size of larger vessels
Medium and large veins contains
Valves made by endothelium
What does portal veins do
Connect capillary networks
What does hepatic portal veins do
Carry blood from gastoinestinal and spleen to dilated sinous capillaries in liver
Hypothalmohypophysical portal system does what
Carries blood from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary
What is arteriosclerosis
Hardening of the arteries creating resistance to blood flow and increasing blood pressure
Atherosclerosis is
A form of arteriosclerosis
What forms plaque in atherosclerosis
Deposit of material in walls of arteries
What are plaque made of
Lipids, calcium deposit, smooth muscle cells, and WBC'S
What can occur in atherosclerosis
Thrombosis and ebolism
What is blood pressure
Measure of force blood exerts against walls of blood vessels
What is pressure measured in
Millimeters of mercury (mmHg)
What is blood flow
Is the continuous circulation of blood in the cardiovascular system
What area does blood always flow from
Area of higher pressure to lower pressure
The greater the pressure difference
The greater the rate of flow which means the faster blood flows
What are facters that affect resistance
Length of blood vessels, diameter of blood vessles, viscosity of blood
Diameter has vasoconstriction which
Decreases blood flow by increasing resistance
Diameter of blood vessel has vasodilation which
Increases blood flow by dreasing resistance
What is compliance
Ability of blood vessels to stretch
16% of the 84% of total blood volume is found
Circulating through the heart and lung
What is capillary exchange
Movemen of substances in and out of capillaries
What are the substances moved in the capillary exchange
Oxygen, water , CO2, nutrients, waste
What is diffusion
Substances move back and forth followung a concentration gradient
Pressure is
Another means of exchange
What is NFP and what does it stand for
Net filtration pressure is the force pushing fluids out of the capillaries into tissue
NFP is the difference between
NHP and NOP (osmotic pressure) , NFP=NHP-NOP
What would cause a decrease in NOP which would also cause what
A decrease in albumin (liver disease, starvation), causinf an accumulation of fluid in tissue or edema
What is local control
What happens around localized tissue
What is nervous system control
Sympathetic and parasympathetic stimulation
Hormonal control is
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Which organs do local control affects
With greatest blood flow like brain, kidneys, liver, skeletal muscle