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Chapter 24

In English

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Tyresha Warren

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life expectancy

is the number of years an individual will probably live, based on average for others with similar characteristics

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102 questions
Life expectancy
Is the number of years an individual will probably live, based on average for others with similar characteristics
Infant mortality rate
Refers to the number of deaths before the age of one
Refers to an increase in size and may involve the entire being or parts within
Refers to function and the gradual process of change and differentiation, from simple to complex
Is defined as growth and development that proceed from the head to the feet
Refers to the growth and development that originates in the center of the body and moves towards the outside
Threadlike structures in the nucleus of a cell that function in the transmission of genetic information
The developing ovum from he time it is fertilized until, as a blastocyst, it is implanted into the uterus
Is a substance, agent, or process, that interferes with normal prenatal development, causing the formation of one or more developmental abnormality in the fetus
Nuclear family
Is a family unit that consist of parents and their biologic offspring
Extended family
Consist of nuclear or traditional family and additional family such as grandparents, grandchildren, aunts, uncles, who live in the same household
Single parent family
Exist today by choice or results of death, divorce, separation, or abandonment
Blended (reconstituted) family
Also called a stepfamily; is formed when adults remarry and bring together children from a previous marriages
Social contract family Aldo referred to as cohabitation
Involves a unmarried couple living together and sharing roles and responsibilities
Homosexual family
Comprises a same sex couple
Transgender family
May consist of one or more parents who have had a gender reassignment or are gender nonconforming
Adoptive family
Is a family unit with adopted children
Refers to families with children under the age of 18 years who live with or in the custody of grandparents
Foster family
Results when the biologic parents are unable or unwilling to provide adequate, safe care for their children
Autocratic family pattern
The relationships are unequal; the parents attempt to control the children with strict rigid rules and expectations
Patriarchal family patterns
The adult males or males in the family usually assumes the dominant role
Matriarchal family pattern
Also known as the matrifocal family; the adult female or females of the family assume primary dominance in the areas of childcare and homemaking and financial decision making
Democratic family pattern
The adult members function equally
Engagement or commitment stage
Begins when the couple acknowledges to themselves and others that they are considered married
Establishment stage
Extends from the wedding up until the birth of the first child
Expectant stage
Begins with conception and extends through the pregnancy
The agreement the woman makes to be artificially inseminated, voluntarily or for a fee, to bear a child, and then relinquish the parenting rights to the baby's natural father or another couple
Parenthood stage
Begins at birth or adoption of the first child
Disengagement stage of parenthood
Is that period of family life when the grown children depart from the home
Senescence stage
Is the last stage of the life cycle and requires the individual to cope with a large range of changes
Sensorimotor stage
An infants knowledge comes about primarily through sensory impressions and motor activities
An innate knowledge structure that allows a child to mentally organize ways to behave in the immediate environment
Preoperational thought stage
When a child focuses on the use of language as a tool to meet needs the child has the emerging ability to think
Concrete operational phase
During this phase, thought become increasingly logical and coherent so that the child is able to classify, sort, and organize facts while still being incapable of generalizing or dealing with abstractions
School violence
Is defined as anything that physically or psychologically injures school children or damage school property
Formal operational thought stage
An individual's cognitive function reaches maturity during adolescence
Is defined as a mood disturbance characterized by feelings of sadness, despair, and hopelessness
A defect in vision and advancing age that involves loss of accommodation or the recession of that near point caused by loss of the elasticity of the crystalline lens and ensuring change in close vision
A normal progressive, age associated loss of hearing acuity, speech intelligibility, auditory threshold, and pitch
A for of discrimination or prejudice against the older adult, is an unfortunate reality; prevents people from being as happy and productive as they otherwise can be
Development is a life long process that
Begins at conception, the beginning of pregnancy, and ends with death
What are the 8 stages of lifespan development
Infancy birth-1, toddler1-3, preschool 3-5, school age 6-12, adolescences 13-19, early adulthood 20-40, middle adulthood 40-65, late adulthood 65+
How has middle adulthood and late adulthood been recently recognized
Having equal importance as earlier stages of development
Growth patterns appear to be
Controlled genetically, and other factors are nutrition, heredity, and environment
What is the basic function of family
The basic unit of society
Define family
Composed of two or more individuals united by marriage, blood, adoption, emotional bonds, and social roles
What is the family responsible for teaching the children
Society expectations and limitations; formal education, instilling morals, values and ideals
Define family patterns
Refer to the way in which family members relate to one another
Ericksons stages of psychosocial development for infancy, birth to 1; Developmental tasks and outcomes
Basic trust vs mistrust; infants learn to either treat or not to trust that significant others will properly care for their basic needs, including nourishments, sucking, warming, cleanliness, and physical contact
Ericksons stages of psychosocial development for middle adulthood, 45 to 65; developmental tasks and outcomes
Generative vs stagnation, middle aged adults are productive, performing meaningful work and raising a family, or becoming stagnant and inactive
Common signs of stress in children
Mood swings, acting-out behavior, change in eating or sleeping pattern, frequent stomachaches headaches or other unexplained somatic symptoms, excessive clinging to parents, thumb-sucking, bedwetting, return to behavior typical of an earlier stage of development
The basic sequence of language
Three months babbling, one year recognition of words, preschool age acquisition of structure of narrative language, at 6 years, ability to speak and understand new words and sentences
Piaget stages of cognitive development sensorimotor birth to 2 years
Uses sense and motor ability, develops schema, begin to interact with environment, learns objects still exist when out of sight, mental representation, develop thinking and goal-directed behaviors
Piagets stages of cognitive development formal operational thought 12+
Uses systematic, scientific problem-solving approach; recognizes past, present, future; able to move in thought from the real to the possible; becomes more interested in ethics, politics, and all social and moral issues
Average vitals for 1 year old
Apical pulse 120, respirations 30, bp 90/60
6 month primary dentition schedule
Teething begins with eruption of two lower central incisors
How much sleep does a toddler need
A daytime nap and twelve hours each night
What does play improve for toddlers
Muscle coordination, balance, and muscle strength
More than half of the childhood deaths are caused by what kind of accidents
Motor vehicle and at home and about 90% of the accidents at home are believed to be preventable
Why is calcium, iron, zinc needed for growth in adolescences
Calcium: for skeletal growth; iron: for expansion for muscle mass and blood volume, soft tissue growth, and rapid growth demands of the expanding red blood cell mass; zinc: the generation of skeletal and muscle tissue
Intimacy leads to
Commitment, sharing, compromise
Define intimacy
The ability to develop one's deepest hopes and concerns in connection to another person
What is the virtue that deploys in young adulthood
Mutuality of devotion between partners who have chosen to share their lives; virtue of love
What does Erickson consider the mark of adulthood
Conflicting demands of intimacy, competitiveness, and distance, they develop an ethical sense
What is the period of menopause known as and will happen
Perimenopause; during this time the ovaries diminish and eventually cease
What are some signs and symptoms of menopause
Irregular periods, flow changes, excess fluid retention, breast tenderness, hot flashes, palpitations, night sweats, irritability or mood swings
Possible evidence of the male climacteric includes
Decreased libido (sex drive), loss of body hair, and delayed erection
Define the autoimmunity theory
With aging, the body becomes less able to recognize or tolerate the "self"; as a result the immune system produces antibodies that act against the self
Define wear and tear theory
Age is not based on chronologic age but is determined by the amount of wear and tear experienced
Define activity theory
The older person who is more active socially is more likely to adjust well to aging
Why do older adults start to loose height
Increase in spinal curvature caused by slight thinning of the intervertebral disk; and certain abnormal postures and contours
What are normal changes to hearing in older adults
Presbycusis ( increased difficulty in hearing high-pitched sounds); increase in degenerative changes within ear structure; increase buildup of wax production
What are some suggested nursing interventions for hearing for older adults
Speak slowly and clearly. face individual, don't shout, speak in lower tones, control background noise, encourage use of hearing aids if available
Some older adults notice changes in memory such as
Benign forgetfulness which is far more common than the forgetfulness associated with Alzheimer's disease
Sleep for the older person is often affected by
Medications, alcohol, caffeine, stress, environmental noises and changes
Life review and acceptance means what
Is ones strengths and weaknesses and are necessary aspects of the aging process
Aging like growth is
A highly individualized process
Erickson identified the central task that must be resolved at each lifespan; what are the lifespans
Infancy, toddler, preschool, school age, adolescences, early adulthood, middle adulthood, late adulthood
Growth patterns suggest
Rapid growth during infancy, continued growth during toddler and preschool years, and slow but steady during the school years, followed by a rapid stage of growth during puberty and adolescence
All types of families serve similar basic functions such as
Protection, nurturance, education, sustenance, and socialization of their members
Development is a lifelong process that
Begins at conception and ends at death
Piaget focussed on the concept of cognitive development beginning
In infancy and continuing throughout the childhood years
When does adolescences take place
The transitional period between childhood and adulthood
Adulthood is marked by what significant events
Carer, decisions, marriage, new social relationships, and financial concerns