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Independent variable is the variable that changes or controlled The dependent variable is tested and measured
be able to identify Independent and Dependent variables from a hypothesis
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Comm 341 - Leaderboard
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Comm 341 - Details
1) Chapter 1
Independent variable is the variable that changes or controlled The dependent variable is tested and measured
Be able to identify Independent and Dependent variables from a hypothesis
Variable an element, feature, or factor that is liable to vary or change. Attributes a quality or feature regarded as a characteristic or inherent part of someone or something.
Identify variables and their attributes
Researchers not put participants in a situation where they might be at risk of harm as a result of their participation.
What is involved in no harm coming to participants?
Debriefing: you interview the person about an experience, project, or mission they've completed.
How do we make up for deception?
(1) disclosure of information, (2) competency of the patient (or surrogate) to make a decision, and (3) voluntary nature of the decision. US federal regulations require a full, detailed explanation of the study and its potential risks
What should be included in an informed consent?
Anonymity is data is recorded so that subjects cannot be linked to the subject who supplied it. Confidentiality data are recorded so that the information is not immediately identified with the subject who supplied it, but such a link is possible.
Anonymity versus confidentiality
Variables are must be correlated( Ex: Education level of parents are found to be correlated to the education level of their children) Cause takes place before the effect. Example: Education level of parents usually is determined BEFORE the education level of their children. Thus the education level the education level of their children. Thus the education level of parents of parents is likely to be the cause in this relationship. Effect cannot be explained in terms of a third variable Effect cannot be explained in terms of a third variable (nonspurious). (nonspurious). Example of a spurious relationship: Ice cream sales are positively correlated with number of people drown at the beach. And ice cream eating happens before the drowning. But is eating ice cream causing people to drown? No, because there is a third factor: hot weather. Hot weather cause ice cream consumption to go up, and number of people swimming to go up at the same time. Hot weather, in this case, has caused a spurious relationship between ice cream consumption and number of people drown.
The three criteria for nomothetic causality--be able to identify examples of these, like spurious relationships
Ecological fallacy is a formal fallacy in the interpretation of statistical data that occurs when inferences about the nature of individuals are deduced from inferences about the group to which those individuals belong. exceptional fallacy makes a conclusion about a group of people based on observations of or data on one individual.
Be able to identify units of analysis and identify faulty reasoning from units of analysis
Conceptualization is the process of specifying what we mean when we use particular terms. It is the reverse process of when we use particular terms. It is the reverse process of conception. conception. Example: When we see the concept “feminism”, we make a list of phenomena representing the concept. The list could include the three items listed on the previous slide. Nominal - assigned to a term without a claim assigned to a term without a claim that the definition represents a "real" entity. that the definition represents a "real" entity. Example: genotype, blood type, zip code, gender, race, eye color, political party. Operational definitions - Specifies how a Specifies how a concept will be measured. concept will be measured. Example: term weight of an object, operationalized to a degree, would be the following: "weight is the numbers that appear when that object is placed on a weighing scale".
Identify the conceptualization process: conceptualization, nominal definitions, and operationalization/operational definitions
Reliability refers to how consistent the results of a study are or the consistent results of a measuring test. This can be split into internal and external reliability. ... Validity refers to whether the study or measuring test is measuring what is claims to measure. Reliability is about the consistency of a measure, and validity is about the accuracy of a measure.
Differences between and importance of reliability and validity (can know basic definitions of validity rather than all of the specific types)
An index is a way of compiling one score from a variety of questions or statements that represents a belief, feeling, or attitude. Scales, on the other hand, measure levels of intensity at the variable level, like how much a person agrees or disagrees with a particular statement First, they are both ordinal measures of variables.
Identify basic similarities and differences between indexes and scales
The probability that the value of a parameter falls within a specified range of values.
A range of values so defined that there is a specified probability that the value of a parameter lies within it.
Is the difference between a population parameter and a sample statistic used to estimate it.
Statistics describe a sample. A parameter describes an entire population.
Recognize a statistic versus a parameter:
Quota sampling, convenience sampling, purposive sampling, self-selection sampling and snowball sampling.
Be able to identify probability versus non probability sampling methods and be able to label them as such
Method for selecting survey participants that is a non-probabilistic version of stratified sampling.
Is a non-probability sampling technique where subjects are selected because of their convenient accessibility and proximity to the researcher.
Is a form of non-probability sampling in which researchers rely on their own judgment when choosing members of the population to participate in their study
Is a non-probability technique, that is based on the judgement of the researcher. This is a useful tool for researchers, who want people or organisations (units), to participate (or volunteer) as part of a study on their own accord.
Snowball sampling is a nonprobability sampling technique where existing study subjects recruit future subjects from among their acquaintances.
S the major entity that is being analyzed in a study. It is the 'what' or 'who' that is being studied. In social science research, typical units of analysis include individuals (most common), groups, social organizations and social artifacts.
Unit of analysis
Leads to confusing questions.
Is generally defined as conditional dependence; within the framework of item response theory the general definition implies that the item characteristic curves of two groups do not coincide.
A question that is answered only if the respondent gives a particular response to a previous question. This avoids asking questions of people that do not apply to them (for example, asking men if they have ever been pregnant).
Are defined as closed-ended questions which have one or more row items which need to be evaluated by respondents on the same column items. Matrix questions are simply multiple choice questions represented in a grid format.
Easy correction of speech,Development of relationship, Collection of primary information, sufficient information, time-saving, less costly, increase knowledge, in-depth analysis, flexible
Incomplete process, no record, lack of attention, disappointed, time-consuming, biases of interview, costly, inefficiency of the interviewer, not suitable for personal matter,
Respondent answers at their convenience, There is no need to set up interview appointments, Surveys are delivered wherever the mail or email goes: city or country, home or officeNo interviewer is present to inject bias in the way questions are asked,The low cost-per-completion makes it an economical method of surveying large samples
Dishonest answers, unanswered questions, difference in understanding and interpretation, hard to convey feelings and emotions, some questions are hard to analyze, respondent may have hidden agenda, lack of personalization, unconscientious response, accessibility issues, questionnaire or survey fatigue.
Cost, time, and if it is legit.
Ordering the survey
Stratified sampling and cluster sampling.
Sampling considerations in content analysis
The document used in data processing and analysis that tells the location of different data items in a data file
A sheet of paper printed with a form on which one can conveniently write a coded program.
The manifest content is the actual literal subject matter of the dream while the latent content is the underlying meaning of these symbols
Identify latent versus manifest content
Refers to the extent to which two or more independent coders agree on the coding of the content of interest with an application of the same coding scheme.
Demonstrate an understanding of what intercoder reliability is for
Refers to methods of collecting data that don't interfere with the subjects under study (because these methods are not obtrusive). Both qualitative and quantitative researchers use unobtrusive research methods. Methods of studying social behavior with affecting it.
Content analysis Analysis of existing statistics Comparative and historical analysis
Types of Unobtrusive Research
The study of recorded human communications ( books, websites, painting, laws).
Safe process for examining communicative messages Economy of time and money Allowing for the correction of errors ( in both qual and quant) Time Research has little (if any) effect on subjects
Content Analysis strengths
Limited to recorded communication
Weaknesses of content analysis
The process of assigning a code to something for the purposes of classification or identification. The process whereby raw data is transformed into standardized form suitable for machine processing and analysis.
Can provide the instruction and definition to coders
The extent to which two or more independent coders agree on the coding of the content of interest with an application of the same coding scheme.
Keep everyone on the same page! Use for coder training and then keep with you for reference while coding.