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Computer Science Paper 1


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[Front]


- Directs the flow of data between the CPU and other devices - Fetch, Decode, Execute
[Back]


What two tasks are the Control Unit responsible for?

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Computer Science Paper 1 - Details

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107 questions
🇬🇧🇬🇧
- Address Bus - Data Bus - Control Bus
What are the 3 buses in a CPU?
System Bus
What is the name for the three buses collectively? (Address bus, Data bus, Control bus)
A collection of Control Lines
What makes up the Control Bus?
Handles commands to other devices
What does the Control Bus do? (generally)
Moving data and instructions between system components
What is the Data Bus responsible for?
Controls where the Data Bus is going to or from
What does the Address bus control?
Program Counter (PC)
The Address of the NEXT instruction to be executed is held in which register?
Current Instruction Register
Which register holds the current instruction being executed?
- opcode - operand
What is the data in the current instruction register divided into? (two things)
The actual data read from or written to memory
What is stored in the Memory Data Register (MDR)?
Memory Buffer Register
What is another name for the Memory Data Register?
- Clock Speed - Number of Cores - Cache Memory (amount and type)
Name the 3 main factors which affect processor performance
3.5 billion cycles per second
How many cycles per second with a clock speed of 3.5GHz?
2-4GHz
What is the average clock speed? (between two values)
Software may not be capable of taking advantage of multiple cores
Why does doubling the number of cores not necessarily double performance?
When an instruction is fetched from Main Memory
When is data copied to the cache?
Level 1 is faster but smaller
There are different levels of cache - Level 1 and Level 2. Which one is faster and what is the drawback of it?
- Instruction Pipeline - Arithmetic Pipeline
Processor Pipelining is sometimes split into two subs, what are they?
A group of bytes
What is a word? (in the context of buses)
Harvard
What is the other architecture other than Von Neumann?
Harvard Architecture
In which architecture are Data and Programs held in seperate memories? (Von Neumann or Harvard)
Data and instructions can be fetched in parallel instead of competing for the same bus
In what way can Harvard architecture be faster than Von Neumann?
- Clock Speed - Number of Cores - Cache size - RAM size - GPU - Pipelining
What are the 6 factors which affect CPU performance
- Overheating - Transistors aren't any faster
Why haven't clock speeds increased past 3.5GHz-4GHz? (2 reasons)
Heat Sink
What's the bit that keeps the CPU from overheating?
CISC
Which one (RISC or CISC) is usually used in desktop computers and laptops?
RISC
Which one (RISC or CISC) is usually used in smartphones?
Has several ALUs
What is special about an array processor?
GPUs have thousands of smaller, more efficient cores which process in parallel
A CPU has a few cores optimised for sequential processing, what about GPUs?
- Barcode Readers - biometric devices - sensors
Give 3 examples of automatic input devices?
Can store lots of data cheaply but is inconvenient to move around
One advantage and one disadvantage of magentic storage
Portable and cheap but small capacity and easily damaged
Two advantages and two disadvantages of optical storage
They all have a way of representing 1 and 0 without power
What is a similarity between all secondary storage devices?
To retain data when the computer is turned off
Why is secondary storage necessary?
- Relatively low capacity - Expensive
Give 2 disadvantages of SSDs
Laser scanners
What type of barcode reader is used in supermarkets?
Camera-based scanners
What is the most reliable type of barcode reader? (use for Berlin Film Festival Tickets)
- RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) - Passive and Active
What is the technology used for oyster cards and what are the two types?
Dog tagging
What is another use of RFID tags other than bank cards/oyster cards?
OLED is plastic so it can bend
What's the difference between LED and OLED screens?
- Thinner - Don't need backlighting - Consume less power
What are 3 advantages of OLED displays?
- they're decent quality and FAST - They use toner as ink
What's the good thing about laser printers and what type of ink do they used?
- Inkjet - Works by spraying minute dots on the page
What type of printer is very high quality and how does it work?
Moving an aileron
What is a use of an actuator in the context of a plane?
Paging is fixed size (4Kb) segments, segmentation is varying length segments
What's the difference between paging and segmentation and how big is a page?
- Pages are fixed size
What is one difference between pages and segments?
.
What are the types of scheduling algorithms?
To compensate for the difference in speed between the peripheral and the CPU
What is the point of a buffer (in the context of peripheral management)
At the end of each fetch-decode-execute cycle
When does the CPU check for interrupts?
Each one is allowed to complete before moving on
What is first come first served scheduling?
- Doesn't account for processing time - Doesn't account for priority
What are 2 disadvantages of first come first served scheduling?
Maximum number of jobs completed quickly but long jobs may never complete if shorter jobs keep interrupting
What is one good thing and one bad thing about shortest job first scheduling?
Shortest Time Remaining
Name the scheduling algorithm which fixes shortest job first's problem
Multi level feedback queue
What scheduling technique takes priority into account?
Multi-tasking OS
What is this type of OS called? - Windows, Linux, MacOS
Allocates each workstation time
How do multi-user OS' allow multiple workstations to access the mainframe?
- ATM - Washing - Car
Name 3 devices with embedded OS