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English Literature - AQA GCSE

A Christmas Carol An Inspector Calls Romeo and Juliet Poem Anthology - Power and Conflict

In English

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Eden NARH 09

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Where is dramatic irony used in the novel?

In stave 4 when Scrooge doesn't know whose dead body that is, but the audience knows that it is him.

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85 questions
Where is dramatic irony used in the novel?
In stave 4 when Scrooge doesn't know whose dead body that is, but the audience knows that it is him.
Where is dramatic irony used in the novel?
In stave 4 when Scrooge doesn't know whose dead body that is, but the audience knows that it is him.
Where is dramatic irony used in the novel?
In stave 4 when Scrooge doesn't know whose dead body that is, but the audience knows that it is him.
What is a semantic field?
When a group of words - usually on a page - are related to each other to create a specific meaning or effect in a text.
What is a semantic field?
When a group of words - usually on a page - are related to each other to create a specific meaning or effect in a text.
What is a semantic field?
When a group of words - usually on a page - are related to each other to create a specific meaning or effect in a text.
What are themes in a Christmas Carol?
Family, Redemption, Benevolence/ Philanthropy, Education, Poverty, Money, Social injustice, Job-life, Treatment of children, Ignorance, Greed and Inequality.
How does Biography and the Book link to the theme; Family
Biography - He was the second eldest of 8 siblings on a small income and also separated from them even after they were freed. Book - Scrooge was neglected by his family when he was young. Cratchit family.
How does Biography and the Book link to the theme; Education
Biography - in 1843, he went to Manchester and talked about the importance of education for the working class. Book - Ignorant rich people left him in school when he was young.
How does Biography and the Book link to the theme; Money
Biography - His father was a clerk but had to change jobs often. He owed people lots of money and the family was sent to prison due to dept. Book - Scrooge was obsessed with money that he even chose it over his girlfriend, he was a jovial opportunist with no money sense. Cratchit family was in poverty. Bob Cratchit asked for more money.
How does Biography and the Book link to the theme; Social Injustice
Biography - People were separated due to their class, the men would take their fathers position meaning they'd automatically get low or high profiles. Book - 'I cant afford to make idle people merry' Scrooge had a Malthomist view like many other upper classed people at the time. He believes that all lower classed people deliberately chose to be in that situation.
How does Biography and the Book link to the theme; Treatment of Children
Biography - He worked 10 hours a day and breathed in soot and felt abandoned. They wouldn't receive money or education. Book - Ignorance and Want Tiny Tim
How does Biography and the Book link to the theme; Job-life
Biography - Charles Dickens had to work in Warrens Blocking Factory which is where they polished shoes. His mother was a housewife. Book - Bob Cratchit is a clerk.
What does nomenclature mean?
The deliberate choosing of names to create an effect.
What are some things we can tell about Scrooges character from Stave 1?
We can tell that Scrooge is; Rude; Mistreating his clerk; A people hater - "he carried his own low temperature always about him, warning all human sympathy to keep its distance"
What are some things we can tell about the Clerks character from Stave 1?
We can tell that Bob Cratchit is; Earning 15 shillings a week for his family; Mistreated - "But the clerks fire was so much smaller . . . Scrooge kept the coal box in his room . . . tried to warm himself at the candle"
What are some things we can tell about the Nephew character from Stave 1?
We can tell that Fred is; Contrasting in personality to Scrooge - "don't be crass uncle"; Happy; Hopeful
How does Charles Dickens use the setting to symbolise Scrooge?
Pathetic fallacy. "The fog came pouring at every chink and keyhole' - This could be a metaphor about how Scrooge refuses to see the POV's of other people. Fog prevents you from seeing far, so it can be symbolising how his bitterness is blinding him. "It was a cold, bleak, biting weather' This may describe Scrooge's character. The dry, biting and nasty weather shows us his personality and how he comes across to others.
What does the exposition tell us about Scrooge?
This part of the story helps us see what type of person Scrooge is and what his motives are. It also shows us how his personality is affecting his surroundings and people around him.
What is pathetic fallacy?
When the environment or setting is used to symbolise a characters personality.
What is divine retribution?
A punishment from a supernatural being (God).
What is the inciting incident?
The moment, event or decision that thrusts a character or the plot into action.
What was Scrooge's personality like before he met the ghost of Marley?
Before Scrooge met Marley's ghost he was; Hard-headed; powerful; emotionless; ignorant; jokey
What was Scrooge's personality like during his interaction with Marley's ghost?
While Scrooge was meeting Marley's ghost, he was; Pleading; fearful; listening; accepting; scared "Scrooge fell upon his knees, and clasped his hands before his face"
Why might Scrooge be the mean way he is?
- Scrooge was alone during childhood and especially during Christmas. When everyone went to celebrate it with family, he was left by himself to read. - This may have affected him as an adult, meaning he spends more time alone as an adult and also he treats everyone in the neglected way he was treated.
What does philanthropic mean?
To be generous and benevolent, especially with money.
What are some things we can tell about Fezziwigs character?
Fezziwig is; Lively - We know this because of the LISTS and the FAST PACE. We also know this because of how much energy and joy he has; Able to treat people well - actions and behaviour; a warm and happy character that's able to promote his feelings to others too - "hilly hoo!"; philanthropic
What does the Horn of Plenty and the Rusty Scabbard symbolise?
Cornucopia - 'a lot of'. The horn of plenty shows that there's enough for everyone and represents generosity and abundance. The scabbard may symbolise peace because it's rusty and there is no sword. This means that there has been peace.
What is Yule?
A Germanic winter festival of eating and drinking.
What is Saturnalia?
A Roman pagan festival were a weak long party was attended by everyone, even slaves and servants.
What is a pagan?
Someone who believes in a religion other than popular or well known religions like Christianity.
What is a semantic field?
When a group of words - usually on a page - are related to each other to create a specific meaning or effect in a text.
What does redemption mean?
To make amends or to get back something.
What is the meaning and antonym of benevolent?
If someone is benevolent, they are good willed and loving. An antonym of benevolent is malevolent.
What is the atmosphere like in the Cratchit's house? How did Scrooge feel after witnessing the events, and why?
The atmosphere is bubbly, energetic and joyous. We know this because of the quick pace and listing in Stave 3. "Danced around the table", "everyone at once" Scrooge was in grief because he learned that Tiny Tim would die. He starts to develop sympathy and pity.
What does surplus mean?
This means excess or unneeded.
What is meritocracy?
The belief that good qualities lead to success.
Why are the children called Ignorance and Want?
Ignorance shows the lack of knowledge that children suffering have, and Want symbolises the yearning of basic necessities that they have. "clung upon the outside of its garment"
What does Scrooge learn from Ignorance and Want?
Scrooge learns that the way you are treated during childhood then forms the way you are when you are older. He realises that just because there are places that they can receive help, it doesn't prevent poverty, just as the spirit says "are there no prisons". He asks this because although there is jail, criminality still exists.
What 3 stages does Scrooge go through from Stave 1 to 3?
In stave 1, Scrooge learns that he will suffer divine retribution if he doesn't change. He experiences fear. In stave 2, he learns to have pity for himself as a child. In stave 3, he learns to have sympathy for those that are less fortunate than him and see some consequences of his actions.
How were Bob Cratchit and Fred able to successfully contrast Scrooge's personality?
I think that they were able to successfully able to contrast Scrooge because they were able to present themselves as good role models that others should follow. Their bubbly, warm and philanthropic personality contradicts Scrooge's cold and threatening aura, showing a clear difference of right and wrong.
Why did Belle leave Scrooge?
Because Scrooge loved money more than her. "Another idol has displaced me". "A golden one'.
Where is dramatic irony used in the novel?
In stave 4 when Scrooge doesn't know whose dead body that is, but the audience knows that it is him.
What is the purpose of Philanthropy and Poverty in a Christmas Carol?
The purpose of philanthropy and poverty in the novel is to show the rich, not only from that era but modern day too, whats happening in the world and how we are responsible for it. He published the book with a philanthropic moral to give so that we can be better people. We know this because we are shown the positive impacts of Scrooge's actions when he changes. He shows us how it benefits our and others health and emotions. At the time most of England was a Christian society, so it was also to remind everyone of Christian values like loving each other and being giving.
What does A Christmas Carol show us about redemption?
We are shown that redemption cant only be completed by reflecting your past actions. Although you do need to accept and acknowledge any wrong you have done, you also need to use your actions to make amends. We are shown times of redemption when Scrooge says "that is my name and I fear it may not be pleasant to you". Here we see how he knows and regrets the wrongs he has done.
What are some quotes from Scrooge?
"I can't afford to make idle people merry' "A poor excuse for picking a man's pocket every 25th of December" "If they would rather die, then they better go and do it to reduce the surplus population" "Have they no refuge or resource?" "I will live in the past, present and future" "And therefore, I am about to raise your salary"
What are vices?
Sins or crimes.
What was the Malthusian Theory?
The idea that the population in in proportion to the global amount of food. He believed that if the amount of food there is rises, so does our population. He also said that the poor would get wiped out for their vices, famine or diseases, giving the higher classes and excuse to dismiss and mistreat them.
What is sabbatarianism?
The belief that the Lord's day (Sunday)should be a day of complete rest.
Why does Dickens disagree with sabbatarianism?
Charles Dickens disagrees with Sabbatarianism because it was very strict. He said it missed essential Christian values and that it's an unnecessary allegiance and ritual to the doctrine. He uses the Cratchit family to show us how we should be warm and full of love.
How does Dickens explore poverty?
Dickens explores poverty through Ignorance and Want. He uses their appearance and how they look in others' eyes. When the writer called them 'abject', it tells us that they are in a terrible state. We know this when their skin is 'yellow' and 'meagre'. This could be a sign of poverty for they may be going through a time of malnourishment (deprivation of food) and bad hygiene. Dickens also shows us how poverty has affected them when he says they are 'miserable' and 'frightful'. This shows the audience how misanthropic actions can negatively impact people. By them being miserable, they might develop depressions and have impacts on their well-being. A lot of the time the write uses lists to describe the children. An example of this is when he says they are "yellow, meagre, ragged, scowling, wolfish". He also uses metaphors to describe the children when he links them to angels and devils. This ties to Christianity and makes the audience question whether their morals are actually good. Their appearance is also shocking to those who see them as they're described as 'hideous'. We know this when Scrooge reacts taken aback and is 'appalled'. He even cant bring himself to lying to such a degree and calling them fine kids. The write may make Scrooge express himself this way to show how poverty affects not only the individual, but the people around them. This shows the audience that it changes the way people may interact with you.
Where is the theme Philanthropy and Misanthropy expressed?
At the start of the novella Scrooge refuses to give to charity and to give Bob more money for Christmas. He says it's a "poor excuse for picking a man's pocket every 25th of December" At the end of the novella Scrooge then raises Bob's salary and gives a lot of money to the child who fetches him a turkey.
Where is the theme Family expressed?
At the start of the novella Scrooge's sister, Fan, visits him and we are shown the potential family he could of had with his girlfriend. At the middle of the novella we are shown the Cratchit's family Christmas dinner.
What are some quotes from the Cratchits family dinner?
"Lord bless us everyone" Tiny Tim "To Mr Scrooge, the founder of this feast' Bob "Hurrah! There's such a goose"
Where is the theme Redemption expressed?
At the end of the novella we see Scrooge making amends for his selfish actions in the past. "I will live in the past, present and future"
How is Sheila presented?
She is shown as a bubbly, young woman who is excited for the dinner. She's also very happy with her life.
How is Mr Birling presented?
He is shown as a boastful, heavy man who wants to be seen as the head of the family.
How is Mrs Birling presented?
She is shown as a cold woman who doesn't like banter. She has a high status she she sees herself as higher and more important than others.
How is Gerald presented?
He is presented as an intelligent, wealthy man who is charming and well-kept.
How is Eric presented?
He is presented as slightly on edge and not at ease. He's quiet but catches onto things.
Why might Eric be described as "half shy, half assertive"?
He may be described this way because he is hiding something, so it shows his suspiciousness.
Why is Inspector Goole's name important?
His name is important because it connotes mystery and suspiciousness, it's also a use of nomenclature.
What year and era is the book set?
1912, the Education Era.
Where is a sense of disquiet - unusualness - shown between Sheila and Gerald?
This is shown between Sheila's and Gerald's interactions, for example, when she receives the ring the Gerald wanted her to have.
How does Sheila address her parents in the first act?
She addresses them as mummy and daddy.
What is anadiplosis?
When you begin the sentnece or clause with the ending of a sentence or clause, e.g. "Our doubt is our passion, and our passion is our task"
Where does a theme of responsibility emerge?
When Mr Biriling refuses to even consider the fact that he may be at fault by discharging Eva.
Who wrote Ozymandias and what is it about?
Percy Shelly wrote Ozymandias, and it's about a traveller talking about a tyrannical ruler that boasts about his power, despite his statue crumbling away at the present day.
What quote in line 1 emphasises Ozymandias' lack of power and why?
"I met a traveller from an antique land" This tells us that the narrator hasn't seen about the statue, only heard about it. This means that Ozymandias' reign hasn't reached far and wide, showing his unimportance.
What do the words "vast", "trunkless" and "stone" emphasise in Ozymandias?
It emphasises the size and stature, but also shows that it's imcompleted.
What does the setting suggest in Ozymandias? Include the quote.
"Stand in the desert" This suggests that there's an absence of life and vitality (active; strong).
What does the quote "sneer of cold command" suggest in Ozymandias?
It suggests that he was tyrannical, and that the painter knew and understood he was an arrogant ruler.
What does "king of kings" and "ye mighty" suggest in Ozymandias?
That Ozymandias was powerful, arrogant and challenged others.
What is ironic about what Ozymandias said? Include the quote and use other quotes to further emphasize your answer.
"despair!" It's ironic because he tells other rulers to fear his power, however, in the end it's temporary. We know this because of; "the decay" "colossal wreck" Suggesting how the statue is ruined and how insignificant his power is compared to time.
What technique is used on the last line in Ozymandias? What does this tell us? Include the quote.
"lone and level" - Alliteration. This emphasises the emptiness of the desert.
What quotes suggest that the desert is vast in Ozymandias? What does this tell us?
"Boundless and bare" "Stretch far away" This suggests that the desert survives far longer than the broken statue, emphasising Ozymandias' insignificance, and his inferirority.
What is the form of Ozymandias?
A sonnet with a turning point.
What is a sonnet?
A fourteen-line poem written in iambic pentameter
How is the human power in Ozymandias insignificant to art?
The human power represented through ozymandias is only seen due to the power of art. However, nature and time have ruined the statue, showing how it's superior.
Why was Ozymandias described as prideful?
He was very proud, and wanted others to admire his works.
Why was Ozymandias described as arrogant?
He believed he was the most powerful and that nothing could compete with him.
Why did Shelly describe Ozymandias this way?
Shelly was a Romantic poet, believing more on emotion rather than reason. Shelly also disliked monarchies, power and oppression which started during the French Revolution when the monarchy was overthrown.