New: Custom Exams
User ID: 999999
You are in browse mode. You must login to use
Log in to start
Return to homepage
1 year ago
0 / 5
Login/Sign up to start
Browse category tree
» Read about learn, practice and the various modes
» To start learning, click login
a. Protect against bacteria, chemicals, UV, and physical abrasion b. Regulates body temp c. Sensation reception d. Synthesis of vitamin D from cholesterol e. Blood reservoir: 8-20% of total volume found in dermis
5 functions of skin
Practice Known Questions
Stay up to date with your due questions
Complete 5 questions to enable practice
Exam: Test your skills
Exam / Test
Test your skills in exam mode
Learn New Questions
Popular in this course
Learn with flashcards
Intelligent mix of all modes
Use settings to weight dynamic modes
Manual Mode [BETA]
The course owner has not enabled manual mode
Other available modes
Multiple choice mode
Answer with voice
Typing only mode
Exam 2 - Leaderboard
1 user has completed this course
No users have played this course yet, be the first
Exam 2 - Details
1) Chapter 1
A. Protect against bacteria, chemicals, UV, and physical abrasion b. Regulates body temp c. Sensation reception d. Synthesis of vitamin D from cholesterol e. Blood reservoir: 8-20% of total volume found in dermis
5 functions of skin
Describe the two principle layers of skin
Stratum Basale: cell division Stratum Spinosum Stratum Granulosum: thin layer of keratinocytes Stratum Lucidum: fingertips, palms, soles (dead keratinocytes) Stratum Corneum: contains corneocytes (different keratinocytes)
List Layers of epidermis
Papillary Layer Reticular Layer
What are the two layers of the dermis?
Areolar CT (elastic and collagen fibers)
What CT is in papillary layer?
Dense irregular CT (significantly thicker: 80% of thickness in dermis)
What CT is in Reticular Layer?
Forms extensions that reach out into the epidermis and contain capillaries that facilitate transport of nutrients
What does the dermal papillae found in papillary layer do?
Found in the dermal papillae
Where is the meissner's corpuscles located
Cleavage lines run longitudinally; less dense areas of CT form these lines
What are cleavage (tension) lines?
Small glands that secrete oily matter (sebum) to skin and hair folicles Found in Reticular layer
What are sebaceous glands and where are the found?
Fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, macrophages, and lymphocytes (immune cells)
What cells do both layers contain?
Located in reticular layer dead kerantinized cells
Where are hair follicles found and what cells hold them together?
Where are sweat glands found?
Start in reticular layer and goes our through epidermis Gives us goosebumps and is found right by hair root
Where are arrector pili muscles found and what is their function?
Adipocytes (fat cells: 1/2 of fat reserve stored here) Areolar CT
What cells and CT are found in the subcutaneous layer?
Below reticular layer (not considered a part of skin)
Where is the subcutaneous layer found?
Passageway for blood vessels and nerves from dermis to muscles and helps protect bones and muscles from damage
What is the function of the subcutaneous layer?
All over entire surface of skin except nipples and parts of genitalia
Where are glands found on body?
Ductless glands that secrete hormones into interstitial fluid and then picked up by blood vessels (IN BODY)
Have ducts and secrete fluid OUTSIDE of body
Exocrine (same as eccrine)
Watery secretion by exocytosis, cool down through exaporative cooling, get rid of waste (water/electrolytes) Saliva, sweat from palms, soles of feet, everywhere else
Merocrine (eccrine) function and example (Exocrine)
Release secretion from top of cell (top of cell breaks off to release proteins, lipids, steroids), release contents into hair folicle Apocrine sweat glands, mammary glands, ceruminous glands Emotional sweating (most active during times of stress/anxiety)
Apocrine function and example (exocrine)
Entire cell breaks down to release sebum, lubricates skin, slows bacterial growth Found in face, chest, back sebaceous glands
Holocrine function and example (exocrine)
Merocrine: temperature regulation
Show how functional classification of exocrine glands is related to the mode by the cells to deliver their secretory products (merocrine)
Show how functional classification of exocrine glands is related to the mode by the cells to deliver their secretory products (apocrine)
Secrete ear wax
Show how functional classification of exocrine glands is related to the mode by the cells to deliver their secretory products (ceruminous)
Show how functional classification of exocrine glands is related to the mode by the cells to deliver their secretory products (mammary)
Epidermal appendages that develop from the epidermis but are located within the dermis Hair follicle: formed within epidermal root, but nourished by dermal papillae Arrector Pili Muscles: attaches to hair follicles Nails Goosebumps
Definition of epidermal derivative and the organs found in this category
Melanin: brown pigment produced by melanocytes Carotene: yellow-orange pigment found in stratum corneum and subcutaneous layer Hemoglobin: from red blood cells
Components that contribute to skin color
Cancer of the epithelium (most common)
Cancer of connective tissue
Arises from abnormal growth of stratum basale in which cells lack ability to produce keratin Does not spread 78% of all cancers
Basal Cell Carcinoma
Arises from stratum spinosum May spread 20% of all skin cancers
Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Most dangerous Spreads rapidly and can kill a person within months of diagnosis Arises from melanocytes of preexisting moles 3% of all skin cancers
-Damage to epidermis -Blood vessels in dermis causing edema and redness -Heal in 2-3 days -No scarring, no blisters, tender
1st degree burn
-Damage to both epidermis and dermis -Blisters: tissue fluid accumulates between epidermis and dermis -Pain: usually quite painful -Epidermis regenerates from edge of burn -Epithelium from hair follicle and sweat glands usually takes 2-3 weeks to heal and might scar -2nd degree burns are critical if <30% of surface is burned
2nd degree burn
-damage to epidermis, dermis, hair follicles, sweat glands, pain receptors, subcutaneous layer -Painless but life threatening because of fluid loss and bacterial infection -Critical if <10% of surface area is burned
3rd degree burn
-Mobilizes body's defenses -Isolates and destroys microorganisms -Removes damages cells so repair can proceed
Vascular and cellular response in preparation for tissue repair (1st step)
Histamine: from mast cells Prostaglandins (from damaged cells)
Chemical mediators of inflammation releases by damaged tissues include
-Vasodilation of blood vessels (heat and redness) -Stimulate pain receptors -Increase permeability of vessels -Blood clot forms during inflammation (formed from protein and fibrin which come from blood)
What are the actions of histamine and prostaglandins?
-Neutrophils arrive as part of inflammation response -Injured tissue and bacteria release chemicals that attract white blood cells -Ingest bacteria and cellular debris -Neutrophils killed in process and accumulates as a mix of dead cells and fluid (pus) -Macrophages remove dead neutrophils and cellular debris
Phagocytosis: to clear area for repair
-Clot becomes a scab -Extensive growth of epithelial cells beneath scab occurs -Epithelium cells from sides of wound migrate beneath scab, eventually meeting and covering wound -Fibroblasts surrounding migrate to the clot along the fibrin threads and synthesize scar tissue -Damaged blood vessels begin to regrow -Granulation tissue: tissue filling the wound
-Extensive growth of epithelial cells beneath scab -Scab sloughs off once epidermis is restored to normal thickness -Collagen deposition in random patterns and become more organized -Continued growth of blood vessels until restored to normal