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Human Development Final

In English

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Crystal Hill

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________ introduced the theory of evolution by natural selection in 1859.

Charles Darwin

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127 questions
Which of the following statements is true about brain development?
Extensive brain development continues after birth, through infancy and later.
According to the neuroconstructivist view of brain development, ________.
Biological processes and environmental conditions influence the brain's development
From an evolutionary perspective, which of the following is true of sleep?
B) Sleep is essential to clearing out waste in neural tissues.
Who is at the highest risk of SIDS?
Chaz who is three months old
Child-directed speech is the
Unique way that parents (and others) talk to babies.
Briefly explain the cephalocaudal and proximodistal patterns of development. Provide an example of each type of pattern.
Cephalocaudal pattern is the sequence in which the earliest growth always occurs at the top- the head - with physical growth and differentiation of features gradually working their way down from top to bottom. Example : Infants see objects before they can control their, torso and they can use their hands long before they crawl or walk. Proximodistal pattern is a sequence in which growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities. Example : Infants control the muscles of their trunk and arms before they control their hands and they use their whole hands before they can control several fingers.
The infant's ability to regulate emotions is tied to
The gradual maturation of the frontal regions of the cerebral cortex.
Which of the following statements is true of crying?
Excessive infant crying in 3-month-olds triples the risk of behavioral, hyperactive, and mood problems at 5 to 6 years of age.
Which of the following would Erik Erikson most likely recommend to soothe a crying infant?
Pick up the baby and soothe him or her so that a healthy sense of trust develops.
The results of the study conducted by National Institute of Child Health and Human Development in 1991 indicate that
The influence of families and parenting is not weakened by extensive use of day care.
Briefly describe the four phases of attachment as identified by John Bowlby.
Phase 1: From birth to 2 months. Infants instinctively direct their attachment to human figures. Strangers, siblings, and parents are equally likely to elicit smiling or crying from the infant. Phase 2: From 2 to 7 months. Attachment becomes focused on one figure, usually the primary caregiver, as the baby gradually learns to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar people. Phase 3: From 7 to 24 months. Specific attachments develop. With increased locomotor skills, babies actively seek contact with regular caregivers, such as the mother or father. Phase 4: From 24 months on. Children become aware of other people’s feelings, goals, and plans and begin to take these into account in directing their own actions.
Which of the following describes Lev Vygotsky's belief about the development of thought and language?
Thought and language initially develop independently of each other and then merge.
Advances in the ________ of the brain are linked to children's ________.
Prefrontal cortex; improved attention, reasoning, and cognitive control
The Education for All Handicapped Children Act, enacted in 1975, required that
All students with disabilities be given a free, appropriate public education.
Which of the following is a strategy for improving children's memory skills?
Embed memory-relevant language when instructing children.
Organic intellectual disability is caused by
A genetic disorder or brain damage.
Children with high self-esteem typically
Are prone to both prosocial and antisocial actions.
According to Albert Bandura, which of the following statements is true of self-efficacy?
It is a critical factor in whether or not students achieve.
Which of the following is a key developmental task as children move toward autonomy?
Learning to relate to adults outside the family on a regular basis
Dan Olweus's bullying intervention program focuses on
Decreasing opportunities and rewards for bullying.
Which of the following statements is true of pubertal growth spurt?
The growth spurt occurs approximately 2 years earlier for girls than for boys.
According to James Marcia, what determines an individual's identity status?
The existence or extent of his or her crisis or commitment
Rites of passage
Provide a forceful and discontinuous entry into the adult world.
Most of us reach our peak physical performance
Before the age of 30, often between the ages of 19 and 26.
Secure attachment to parents during childhood correlates with
Secure attachment to romantic partners in adulthood.
Individuals with an anxious attachment style
Demand closeness in relationships and are less trusting and more emotional.