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ray optics


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sakhi rathore


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paraxial ray
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rays which form very small angle with principle axis and close to it are called paraxial rays.

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Paraxial ray
Rays which form very small angle with principle axis and close to it are called paraxial rays.
Explain the rules of sign convention
Acc. to above convention radius of curvature and focus of concave mirror are -ve and for convex mirror is +ve
When is a ray passing through a parallel slab parallel
If the medium is same on both sides of the slab
What are the condition for TIR
-ray is going from denser to rarer medium -angle of incidence should be greater than critical angle
Spaarkling of diamond
Due to TIR inside it. as refractive index for diamond is 2.42 so C=24.41 degree. now the cutting of diamond are such that i>C.
Optical fibre
In it light through multiple TIR is propagated along the axis of a glass fibre of few microns in which index of refraction of core is greater than that of surrounding
Mirage
Is caused due to TIR where due to heat the refractive index of air near the earth's surface becomes less than above it
Looming
In polar regions looming takes place due to TIR. here refractive index decreases with height
Dispersion of light
When white light is incident on a prism then it splits into seven colours
Angle of dispersion
Angle between the rays of extreme colours in the refracted light.
Achromatic combination
Used for deviation without dispersion
Direct vision combination
Used for producing dispersion without deviation
Displacement method
Used for determination of focal length of convex lens in laboratory.
Why do we prefer to use a convex mirror for observing traffic at our back
Because a convex mirror has a more larger field of veiw than a plane mirror or concave mirror
A ray incident along normal to a mirror retraces it's path
Because in refletion the angle of incidence and reflection is always equal
Why do images formed by mirrors do not show chromatic aberration
Because focal length of mirror is independent of wavelength of light and reractive index of medium
Light from an object falls on a concave mirror forming a real image of the object. if both the object and mirror are immersed in water, there is no change in the position of image. why?
Because the formation of the by reflection does not depend on surrounding medium, there is no change in position of image provided it is also formed in water.
Why are images formed by TIR much brighter than those formed by mirror
Beacuse there is no loss of intensity of light in TIR
Why does a fish in the pond see a person outside taller than he actually is
Because light bends away from the normal as it enters water from air
Why does just before setting the sun appears to be elliptical
Because of refractionof light ray through the atmosphere may cause difernt magnification in mutually perpendicular directions
When does a covex lens behaves as a concave lens
When placed in a medium of refractive index greater than the refractive index of its material because light in that case will travel through the convex lens from denser to rarer medium. it will bend away from the normal
Axial or longitudinal chromatic aberration
If the object is at infinity, then longitudinal chromatic aberration is equal to the difference in focal length for the red and the violet rays
Achromatism
If two or more lenses are combined together in such a way that this combination produces images due to all colours at the same point then this combination is known as achromatic combination of lenses
When is an image enlarged
Image is enlarged when object is placed between F and 2F and between pole and focus of concave mirror