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Sports psychology

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What are skills placed on and why?

Skills can be placed on a continum as they don't fit directly into 'open' or 'closed' . They may have more elements of open than closed but still have elements of both

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Sports psychology - Details



50 questions
What are skills placed on and why?
Skills can be placed on a continum as they don't fit directly into 'open' or 'closed' . They may have more elements of open than closed but still have elements of both
What is an open skill?
Environment is constantly changing Movements have to be continually adapted Predominately extremely paced
Examples of open skills
Football, field hokey, rugby tackle
What is a closed skills?
Stable and predictable environment Movements have a clear beginning and end
Examples of closed skills ?
Diving, swimming, handstand
What is a difficulty continumum ?
Considers how complicated the skills are by how much attention is needed to complete them.
What is a basic skill?
Straight foward Requires little concentration Relativily low level of attention. Few sub-routines needed to complete them.
What is a complex skill?
Complicated Requires high levels of concentrtion Complete opposite of basic. Lost of sub-routines and require high levels of concentration. Very difficult skill to master.
What is a low organisational skill?
A basic skill that can be broken down easily into different phases so each part can be practiced separately.
What is a high organisational skill?
A skill that cannot be broken down easily becuase they phases of the skills are closely linked.
Example of low organisational skill?
Freestyle swimming stroke
What is fixed practice?
Practicing a skill and repeating the skill over and over again. Best with closed skills. Its good for someone who is new to the skill/sport.
Example of fixed practice?
Putting in golf, shooting in basketball, shooting
What is variable practice?
A training sessions that includes frequent changes to the task or setting. A skill that is practical in different settings with unpredictable and changeable conditions.
What is massed practice?
Involves long practice periods without rests, where skills are repeated continuously. This allows the person to practice structure, to increase the consistency of the skill. More suited to low organistational skills and basic skills
Example of massed practice?
Freestyle swimming
What is distributed practice?
Intervals between skill practice in a training session for rest or mental rehersal. Like doing a skill and then coming into talking about it after. More suited for complex skills
Why is it important to set goals?
Help us believe in ourselves Gain confidence Improve performance Influence motivation
Benefits of effective goal setting
Can allow for analysis of strengths and weaknesses Give a performer something to aim for Improve focus Increase effort Develop perservance Give additional motivation Improve overall performance.
What does SMART target stand for?
Specfic, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-bound targets.
What does specific mean?
The goals should target specific aspect of the performance to develop. Gives good emphasis.
What does measurable mean?
You should have a way of knowing if you have achieved the goal. Shows weather you have met the goal or not
What does achievable mean?
Goals must be within reach, challenging but attainable. Performer may become demotivated if they can't achieve the goal.
What does realistic mean?
The goal should be possible if they work hard. The performer will then aspire to meet their goal if it feels possible.
What does time-bound mean?
Goals should have time limits, if not, performer will have no urgency to finish the goal. Gives them motivation to hit the goal by a given time.
What are the 4 different types of guidance?
Visual, verbal, manual, mechanical
What is visual guidance?
Demonstration from the coach, or book, or peer, or video. Intention to make an mental image that can be used as reference during practice.
What must be ensured during visual guidance?
Demonstration should be repeated and then the performer should do it during practice. Reinforcement should happen so that the performer retains the information
Who benefits from visual guidance?
Armatures to copy and mimic. Good for basic skills.
Disadvantage of visual guidance?
Not an exact image or a good demonstration (if wrong), harder for complicated skills
Advantages of visual guidance?
Can copy what is seen, useful for all levels of performers, whole skill can be observed.
What is verbal guidance?
An explanation of the task, usually alongside visual guidance (speaking through demonstration)
Advantages of verbal guidance?
Can be used for more experiences players as sometimes its quicker, only needs description. Can be used with alongside visual, highlights key teaching points, can make the performer think
Disadvantages of verbal guidance?
Too much information can be given, may loose concentration, beginners may not understand technical terms, this is a mean of feedback.
What is manual guidance?
Involves physical support, such as holding onto the person. Can correct the movement while the performer is doing it.
Advantages of manual guidance?
Ensures safety, good for simple skills, goes alongside with mechanical guidance, feel how to do the movements correctly, reduces fear and anxiety.
Disadvantages of manual guidance?
Might teach it wrong and it sticks, performer becomes dependent on the support, coach should restrict and contract the use of this guidance.
What is mechanical guidance?
A device used to help performance, such as an armband in swimming or a harness in trampoline.
Advantages of mechanical guidance?
Supports the performer, helps develop the skill quicker, helps with safety, and dangerous skills, can be used for disabled athletes.
Disadvantage of mechanical guidance?
Might become overlay confident, reliant on the aid, expensive to use, motivation can be lost
What are the 4 different types of feedback?
Intrinsic, extrinsic, concurrent and terminal.
What is intrinsic feedback?
Information a performer receives about their performance that comes from within and is linked to how a movement feels. For experience players that have the knowledge and experience. They can self-asses and self-correct.
What is extrinsic feedback?
Information a performer receives about their performance with a coach. Visual or verbal guidance, inexperienced performers need this, experienced performers will combined both.
What is concurrent feedback?
Information a performer receives about their performance during the activity. Can be intrinsic or extrinsic, if a performance lasts long enough, can make changes ass they go.
What is terminal feedback?
Information a performer receives about their performance after the activity has been complete. Could be straight after or some time later, always extrinsic.
What is a psychological warm up?
Ensures performer attention is focused on the performance Helps manage nerves and control outside pressure Various methods, performer will do what suits them eg. positive self-talk, trigger words, streching and breathing techniques.
What is mental rehearsal?
Technique used by high level performers Practice the skill in your head Remember the movements and feel for a successful performance Can only be done for skills that have specific preparation time eg. Penalty in football, giving.