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urinary system


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functions of urinary system
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excretion; kidney filter blood. filtrate is modified in kidney tubules (reabsorption and secretion).urine is excreted regulation of blood volume and blood pressure regulation of blood solutes regulation of extracellular fluid pH regulation of blood pressure:renin regulation of RBC synthesis; erythroprotien activation of vitamin D

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Functions of urinary system
Excretion; kidney filter blood. filtrate is modified in kidney tubules (reabsorption and secretion).urine is excreted regulation of blood volume and blood pressure regulation of blood solutes regulation of extracellular fluid pH regulation of blood pressure:renin regulation of RBC synthesis; erythroprotien activation of vitamin D
Location of kidneys in abdominal cavity
Retoperitoneal is in the superior lumbar region right kidney is lower than the left
Renal ptosis
An abnormal condition in which the kidney drops down into the pelvis when the patient stands up, common in woman
Ureter
Transport urine from kidney to bladder
Urethra
Transport urine out thr body
Kidney
Major excretory organ
Urinary bladder
Temporary storage reservoir for urine
Renal hilum
Leads to the renal sinus. area of kidney from where all tubular structures(blood vessels and ureters) enter and exit the kidneys
Describe the layer of supportive tissue around renal fascia
The anchoring layer of dense fibrous connective tissue
Hydronephrosis
Swelling of kidney due to a build up of urine
Glomerulus
Found in renal corpuscle, a network of capillaries twisted around each other.
Filtrate
Fluid filtered from the glomerular capillaries
Pyelitis
Inflammation of the renal pelvis
Pyelonephritis
Is the inflammation of a kidney due to a bacterial infection
Root word for nephr/o
Combining form mening kidney
Components of renal corpuscle
Renal capsule, glomerrulus
Tissue makeup of bowmans capsule
Parietal layer(simple squamous) visceral layer
Tissue makeup of glomerulus
Fenestrated capillaries(simple squamous)
What make up filtration slits
Made by the pedicles of podocyes
What are podocytes
Are cells that surround glomerulus
Pedicels
Extensions of the podocytes
PCT histology
Simple cuboidal cells w/ abundant microvilli
Thin segment of loop of henle
Simple squamous epithelium, has microvilli
DCT
Simple cuboidal cells w/ sparse microvilli
Collecting ducts
Simple cuboidal epithlium , some microvilli
Principal cells
Cuboidal cells w/o microvilli maintain water and salt balance also control ADH and aldosterone
Intercalated cells
Cuboidal cells w/ microvilli maintain pH
The kidneys control blood levels of ions
Na+,K+,Ca+, excreting excess ions or reabsorbing needed ions
List the structures in order of urine flow
Glomerular filtration  Tubular reabsorption in PCT, loop of Henle, DCT  Collecting Ducts  renal papilla  minor calices  major calices  renal pelvis  ureters  urinary bladder  urethra Tubular secretion in PCT, loop of Henle  DCT  Collecting Ducts
Glomerular filtration
Passive mechanical process driven by hydrostatic pressure, filtration membrane is very permeable and has large surface area
What type od substances can be filtered from blood
Glucose, amino acids, water, salt.
? What types of substances should not be found in the filtrate?
Molecules bigger than 5nm(plasma proteins )
Tubular reabsorption
Returns all glucose and amino acids.process that moves substances from renal tubules to blood capillaries
Tubular secretion
Reverse of absorption, selective addition to urine.that moves substances from blood capillaries to renal tubules
HP g
Glomerular hydrostatic pressure, the chief force that pushes substances out the glomerulus
OP g
Colloid osmotic pressure, is the force that keeps substances inside the glomerulus
HP c
Capsular hydrostatic pressure, the force of the filtrate in the glomerular capsule that pushes substances back into blood
GFR
Glomerular flitration rate, volume of filtrate formed per minute by kidneys (120-125ML/MIN) proportional to NFP
Why is the hydrostatic pressure in the glomerulus higher than in a regular capillary?
Due to the added resistance of the efferent arteriole created by the difference in size between afferent and efferent arteriole
What would happen to GFR if blood pressure decreases by 20%?
Shut down filtration and kidney function, dilation of afferent arterioles, increased blood volume in glomerulus, helps maintain normal GFR
Glomerulonephritis
Acute inflammation of kidney, caused by immune response
Explain the myogenic mechanism of renal autoregulation
Increase BP will cause high NFP; constriction of afferent arterioles will decrease blood volume , maintain NFP decrease BP causes a loss of NFP which will shut down filtration and kidney function ; dilation of afferent arterioles, increase blood volume NFP normal
Macula densa cells of the JGA respond to
Increased flow rate by releasing a vasoconstriting chemical that acts on the afferent arteriole, GFR decreases
Describe the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on the kidneys
Norepinephrine (NE) is released by the sympathetic nervous system. NE and E are released by the adrenal medulla both cause constriction of afferent arterioles
What is the effect on GFR when the sympathetic nervous system is activated?
GFR decreases because blood vessels constricted, less blood, pressure decreases, less filtration
Which cells of the JGA secrete renin?
The granular cells of the JGA
Describe the responses due to activating the renin angiotensin mechanisms.
Angiotensin 1 is converted to angiotensin 2 in ungs by ACE, angiotensin 2 causes vasoconstriction
Urea is secreted in the
Ascending loop of henle and collecting ducts
Diuretic
Are chemicals that enhance urinary output
Osmotic diuretic
Substances not re absorbed that attract and retain water
Renal clearance
The volume of plasma cleared of a particular substance
Urinalysis
Is the analysis of urine by physical chemical and microscopial means to test for the presence of diease drugs
Micturition, controlled
Urination, constriction of detrusor muscle by ANS;opening of internal urethral sphincter by ANS, opening of external urethral sphincter by somatic nervous system