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Veterinary Embryology 8.5

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Veterinary Embryology 8.5


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Name the functions of the fetal membranes.
Name the functions of the fetal membranes.

embryonal/fetal nutrition, excretion and protection

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237 questions
Name the functions of the fetal membranes.
Embryonal/fetal nutrition, excretion and protection
The fetal membranes comprise the following:
Yolk Sac Amnion Allantois Chorion
The inner surface of the amnion can remain smooth or it may develop caseous (cheese-like) epithelial thickenings known as ____ ____. What is their function?
Amniotic plaques These structures are thought to prevent the development of adhesions between the amnion and the embryo/fetus; amniotic plaques also form on the umbilical cord in some species.
Name the functions of the amniotic fluid (7).
1. shock-absorber and pressure equalizer 2. allows embryonal/fetal movement and changes in shape nd size to occur unhindered 3. protects the embryo/fetus against dehydration 4. prevents the development of adhesions between the embryo/fetus and the surrounding tissues 5. allows a limited uptake of fetal excreta 6. serves as a lubricant for the birth canal during parturition. 7. The intact amniotic sac serves as a hydraulic dilator of the birth canal during parturition in most species.
True or false. The allantois eventually fuses with the yolk sac.
False Narrow clefts of exocoelom persist between somatopleure and splanchnopleure.
Name some characteristics of Hippomanes
1. oval to disc-shaped structures 2. variable in colour 3. ranging in size from 5 to 15 cm 4. loat freely or may be attached to the allantochorion by means of a stalk 5. transverse section, they often reveal a layered appearance 6. central nucleus of cellular debris is surrounded by concentric layers of mucoprotein, calcium and phosphates.
Histotrophic nutrient sources utilized include the secretions of the ____ _____, _________ and __________.
Uterine glands desquamated uterine epithelial cells maternal red blood cells
Name the nutrients collectively known as "uterine milk" or histotrophe.
Secretions of uterine glands desquamated uterine epithelial cells maternal red blood cells
Name the structures the umbilical chord consists of.
Vitelline duct Aa. and Vv. vitellinae the allantoic duct Aa. and Vv. umbilicales
In what species does the umbilical cord have a natural point of rupture and where is that point located?
Ungulates 1-2 cm distal to the transition from skin to amniotic epithelium This point is characterized by a sudden reduction in the dense connective tissue in the umbilical vessels' adventitia The weight of the neonate (newly born) is sufficient to break the cord.
Name the 4 classification according to the Fetal Membranes forming the Pars fetalis
A. Placenta vitellina b. Placenta choriovitellina c. Placenta chorioallantoica d. Placenta chorioamniotica
Name the 3 classifications of placenta according to the Area/s for Hemotrophic Nutrition.
Semiplacenta diffusa Semiplacenta cotyledonaria Placenta zonaria
How is placental intimacy increased in Epitheliochorial placentae?
Placental intimacy may be increased by chorionic ridges that fit into corresponding uterine grooves. The epithelium covering the villi generally have microvilli that interdigitate with uterine epithelial microvilli; this further improves intimacy and increases the surface area for metabolite exchange. Intra-epithelial capillaries are present and improve placental intimacy without reducing the number of tissue layers.
Describe Hempotrophic and Histotrophic nutrition in Epitheliochorial placentae?
Simple to compound chorionic villi are formed and are principally responsible for hemotrophic nutrition. Histotrophic nutrition usually occurs in the adjacent avillous areas, but may also involve the chorionic villi.
Gestational Period of the mare?
334-343 days 48-49 weeks 11 months
Gestational Period of the jenny?
360 days 52 Weeks 12 Months
Why does the equine embryo appear to "wander" throughout the entire uterus until day 15?
It is thought that this promotes the maternal recognition of pregnancy which apparently requires that the entire endometrium "be informed" as to the presence of the embryo.
On what day does implantation of the equine embryo occur and where?
Day 16 The embryo settles at the caudal end of one of the uterine horns. It lies with the animal pole (embryonal disc) against the antimesometrial wall, and with its longitudinal axis orientated cranio-caudally.