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level: Level 1

Questions and Answers List

level questions: Level 1

Refers to abnormal breath sounds or noises that occur in addition to the normal breath sounds: examples are crackles and wheezesAdventitious
The saclike units at the end of the bronchioles in which gas exchange takes placeAlveoli
The drawing in or out by suction. In the lungs, aspiration of food, liquids, blood, or foreign objects can occur when a patient is unable to protect his or her own airwayAspiration
Collapse of The alveolar air spaces of the lungsAtelectasis
A pharmacological agent that stimulates the beta 2 receptor sites found in smooth muscle; includes common bronchodilators such as albuterol and levalbuterolBeta 2 agonist
Poisoning characterized by severe muscle paralysis and usually caused by eating food containing botulinum toxinBotulism
Severe constriction of smooth muscle surrounding the bronchial treeBronchospasm
Deep cyanosis of the face and neck that extends across the chest and back; associated with little or no blood flow; a particularly ominous signCape cyanosis
A ridge like projection of tracheal cartilage located where the trachea bifurcated into the right and left mainstem bronchiCarina
Contorted positioning of the hand or foot in which the fingers or toes flex in a claw like manner; may be caused by hyperventlationCargo pedal spasm
A chronic inflammatory condition affecting the bronchi that is characterized by excessive mucus production as a result of overgrowth of the mucous glands in the airwaysChronic bronchitis
Heart disease that develops because of chronic lung disease and affect primarily the right side of the heartCorpulmonle
The abnormal breath sounds that have a fine, crackling quality; previously called ralesCrackles
A common disease of infancy and childhood caused by upper airway obstruction and characterized by stridor, hoarseness, and a barking coughCroup
The production of large amounts of urine by the kidneyDiuresis
The infiltration of any tissue by air or gas; a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by distention of the alveoli and destructive changes int he lung paenchymaEmphysema
A sitting position with the head elevated to 90 degrees (sitting straight upright)Fowler position
A mesh filter placed int he inferior vena cava to catch blood clots in patients who are at high risk of pulmonary embolusGreenfield filter
A disease of unknown cause characterized by progressive paralysis moving from the feet tot he head (ascending paralysis); if paralysis reaches the diaphragm, the patient may require respiratory supportGuillain barre syndrome
An iron-containing protein within red blood cells that has th3e ability to combine with oxygenHemoglobin
Coughing up blood in the sutumHemoptysis
Engorgement of the jugular veins when the liver is gently pressed; this finding is specific to right sided heart failureHepatojugular reflux
An excess of oxygenHyperoxia
To move inadequate volumes of air into the lungsHypoventilate
A state in which the stimulus to breathe comes from a decrease in PaO2, rather than front he normal stimulus, an increase in PaCo2Hypoxia drive
The visible bulging of the jugular veins when a patient is in a sei Fowler or full Fowler position; indicates inadequate blood movement through the heart and or lunsJugular venous distention
A respiratory pattern characteristic of diabetic keto acidosis, with marked hyper pea and tachypnea; represents the body’’s attempt to compensate for the acidosisKussmaul respirations
Inflammation of the larynx trachea, and bronchiLaryngotracheobronchitis
Firming of the lungs as a result of fluid accumulationLung consolidation
The transfer of a disease from one organ or part oft eh body to another that is not directly connected to the original site; often used to describe a cancer that has spread to another part of the bodyMetastasis
The sound of one note during wheezing, caused by the vibration of a single bronhisMonophonic
Severe dyspnea experienced when recumbent that is relieved by sitting or standing upOrthopnea
One of three sets of lymphatic organs that constitute the tonsils; located in the back of the throat, on each side of the posterior opening of the ora cavity; help protect the body from bacteria and other pathogens introduced into the mouth and nosePalatine tonsils
The functional portions of a gland or solid organParenchyma
Severe shortness of breath occurring suddenly at night after several hours of recumbency, as fluid pools in the lungsParoxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
Excessive accumulation of fluid in the pleural spacePleural effusion
Inflammation of the lung caused by an infectious agentPneumonia
Lung inflammation from an irritant, such as a chemical, dust, r radiation, or from aspiration, such as aspiration of gastric contentsPnemonitis
The production of too many red blood cells over time, making the blood thick; characteristic of people with chronic lung disease and chronic hypoxiaPolycythemia
The sound of multiple notes during wheezing; caused by the vibrations of multiple bronchiPolyphonic
A false membrane formed by a dead tissue layer; seen in the posterior Haryana of patients with diphtheriaPseudomembrane
Weakening or loss of a palpable pulse during inspiration; characteristic of conditions that cause profound pressure changes in the thorax, such as cardiac tamponade and severe asthmaPulses paradoxus
Full of pus; having the character of pusPurulent
A term used to describe any condition that causes hyper reactive bronchioles and bronchospasm in response to certain triggersReactive airway disease
Diseases that limit the ability of the lungs to expand appropriately. Skeletal abnormalities such as kyphosis and scoliosis are common examples of conditions that can cause these diseasesRestrictive lung diseases
The drawing in of the intercostal muscles and the muscles above the clavicles that can occur in respiratoryRetractions
The nnstriated involuntary muscle found in vessel walls, glands, and th gi tractSmooth muscle
A noise made during inhalation when the upper airway is partially obstructed by the tongueSnoring
A device that collects medication as it is released from the canister of a metered-dose inhaler, allowing more medication to be delivered tot he lungs and less to be lost to the environmentSpacer
A severe, prolonged asthma attack that cannot be stopped with conventional treatment, such as the administration of epinephrineStatus asthmaticus
A harsh, high pitched inspiratory sound representing air moving past an obstruction within or immediately above the glottis opening; associated with severe upper airway obstruction, such as that caused by laryngeal edemaStridor
Vibrations in the chest that can be felt with a hand on the chest as the patient breathesTactile fremitus
The opening created during a tracheotomy procedureTracheostomy
A chronic bacterial disease caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis that usually affects the lungs bu can also affect other organs, such as the brain and kidneysTuberculosis
The process of exchanging air betwee the lungs and the environment; includes inhalation and exhalationVentilation