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level: Level 1

Questions and Answers List

level questions: Level 1

unifying principle of biologycell theory
a microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles.Prokaryote (encompasses bacteria)
thick fluid consisting of ions and biomolecules mixed in water.cytosol
composed of cytosol and organellescytoplasm
cytoplasmic structure that performs a unique function in the cell.organelle
provides the energy that fuels all cellular functions.mitochondrion
important protein-manufacturing organelles.ribosomes
selectively permeable barrier that removes waste, communicates with enviroment, anchors cell in placeplasma membrane
enable transport (nutrients, waste), communication with external environment, and attachment to extracellular matrix (Membrane proteins
the nucleus is bound by a double plasma membrane callednuclear envelope
allow ions and small molecules pass freely within the nuclear envelopenuclear pores
interconnected network of tubes and flattened sacs that produces certain lipids and proteinsendoplasmic reticulum
dotted with ribosomes that produce proteins for use both inside and outside the cell.rough ER
produce lipids for other cellular compartments and help break down toxic organic compounds in the cell.enzymes of the smooth ER
produce lipids for other cellular compartments and help break down toxic organic compounds in the cell.transport vesicle
act much like lysosomes to break down macromolecules.plant vacuoles
folds of the inner membrane within the mitochonriacristae
consists of filaments and cylinders of special proteins that constitute an internal framework within the cytoplasm.cytoskeleton
rigid, hollow cylinders of protein for: Positioning organelles– transporting vesicles and organelles, propelling the cellmircotubules
ropelike cables of protein that provide mechanical reinforcement to the celintermediate filaments
thin, flexible proteins that create cell shape and generate crawling movements in some cells.microfilaments
protein sub-units that make up microtubulestubulin
Microfilaments are thin strands of protein calledactin
cells with numerous hairlike projections that move cell through liquidcilia
slender threadlike structure, especially a microscopic appendage that enables many protozoa, bacteria, spermatozoa, etc. to swimflagellum
spontaneous movement of a substance and can take place without an input of energypassive transport
movement of a substance in response to an input of energyactive transport
passive transport of a substance from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration.diffusion
when concentration gradients disappear and therefore diffusion ceasesequilibrium
diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membraneosmosis