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Nahuatl-speaking peoples of central Mexico in the postclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology. They had a stronger built country that had a cultural mixture.Aztecs
a family of North American Indian languages spoken in the southeastern United StatesMuskogean
Native Americans believed in a great spirit called Wakan Tanka although their religion was animisticNative American religion
Exchanges of living things such as plants, animals, and diseases.Biological exchange
Announcement that the Native Americans accepts the "New World Order".Requerimento
Spanish version of slavery/early system of forced labor.Encomienda
Conquistador who opposed slavery that went to Brazil who created a "requiremento" that led to an "encomienda".Bartolomeo de Las Casas
Promoted the English colonization of North AmericaRichard Hakluyt
Neither a state or federal government can pass laws which aid one religion, aid all religions, or prefer one.Religious Establishment
Western Christian tradition which has developed from the practices, liturgy, and identity of the Church of EnglandAnglicanism
Strictness and austerity in conduct and religionPuritanism
Winter of 1609–1610 when about three-quarters of the English colonists in Virginia died of starvation or starvation-related diseases.“Starving time”
An English politician and coloniser.George Calvert
An armed rebellion that took place 1676-1677 by Virginia settlers led by Nathaniel Bacon against the rule of Governor William Berkeley.Bacon's Rebellion
Ten essays on American Puritanism."Errands into The Wilderness"
An English Puritan lawyer and one of the leading figures in founding the Massachusetts Bay Colony.John Winthrop
Puritan minister, theologian, and author who founded Providence PlantationsRoger Williams
Christian movement founded by George Fox c. 1650 and devoted to peaceful principles.Quakers
Theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelationDeism
A series of English laws that developed, promoted, and regulated English ships, shipping, trade, and commerce between other countries and with its own colonies.Navigational Acts
an employee within a system of unfree labor who is bound by a signed or forced contract to workIndentured servants
individuals who displayed savage behavior"Savage"
an unconverted member of a people or nation who does not acknowledge the God of the Bible"heathens"
the sea journey undertaken by slave ships from West Africa to the West Indies.middle passage
a multilateral system of trading in which a country pays for its imports from one country by its exports to another.triangular trade
a planned military coup by the Continental Army in March 1783newburgh conspiracy
series of Christian revivals that swept Britain and its Thirteen Colonies between the 1730s and 1740s. Strove to renew individual piety and religious devotion.Great Awakening
movement within Protestant Christianity with the belief that the essence of the Gospel consists of the doctrine of salvation by grace, solely through faith in Jesus's atonement.Evangelicals
a major political party in the United States in the early 19th century; founded by Alexander Hamilton; favored a strong centralized governmentFederalist Party
a war in North America between France and Britain (both aided by American Indian tribes); 1755-1760French and Indian War
British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, i.e. trade laws that were meant to keep British colonies obedient to EnglandSalutary Neglect
secret revolutionary organization that was created to advance the rights of the European colonists and to fight taxation by the British government.Sons of Liberty
new laws that placed new taxes and took away some freedoms from the colonists including the following: New taxes on imports of paper, paint, lead, glass, and tea.Townshend Acts
idea that the members of Parliament reserved the right to speak for the interests of all British subjects.Virtual Representation
laws meant to punish the Massachusetts colonists for their defiance in the Tea Party protest in reaction to changes in taxation.Coercive Acts/Intolerable Acts
pamphlet written by Thomas Paine that challenged the authority of the British government and the royal monarchy.Common Sense
a written agreement ratified in 1781that provided a legal symbol of their union by giving the central government no power over the states or their citizens.Articles of Confederation
suspected treasonous cabal of US planters, politicians, and army officers in the early 19th century, led by Aaron Burr.Burr Conspiracy
was the first African-American woman to publish a book of poetry. Born in West Africa, she was sold into slavery at the age of seven or eight and transported to North America.Phyllis Wheatley
North American revivalist preacher, philosopher, and Congregationalist Protestant theologian.Jonathan Edwards
a statement about both freedom of conscience and the principle of separation of church and state. Written by Thomas Jefferson.Virginia Statute for Religious Liberty
was a national bank, chartered for a term of twenty years, by the United States Congress.Bank of The U.S.
proposed a strong central government composed of three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial.Virginia Plan
the document recording the proclamation of the second Continental Congress (4 July 1776) asserting the independence of the Colonies from Great Britain.Declaration of Independence
was one option as to how the United States would be governed. The Plan called for each state to have one vote in Congress instead of the number of votes being based on population.New Jersey Plan
was an agreement that large and small states reached during the Constitutional Convention of 1787 that in part defined the legislative structure and representation that each state would have under the United States Constitution.Connecticut Compromise
was an armed uprising in opposition to a debt crisis among the citizens and the state government's efforts to collect taxes both on individuals and their trades. Led by Daniel Shay.Shays' Rebellion
urgent and timely reexamination of the roots of church-state separation in American politics and a ringing refutation of the misguided claims of the religious right.The “godless” Constitution
Popular politicians who unsuccessfully opposed the strong central government envisioned in the U.S. Constitution.Anti-Federalists
a collection of 85 articles and essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and John Jay under the pseudonym "Publius" to promote the ratification of the United States Constitution.Federalist Papers
an amendment to the Constitution of the United States guaranteeing the right of free expression; includes freedom of assembly and freedom of the press and freedom of religion and freedom of speechFirst Amendment
operate to protect the religious liberty and freedom of conscience of all Americans.Establishment clause
Work hand-in-hand with the Establishment Clause to protect the religious liberty and freedom of conscience of all Americans.Free Exercise Clause
provides that representation in Congress will be based on "the whole Number of free Persons" and "three fifths of all other Persons."Three-fifths clause
Fourth presidential election, where Vice President Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republican Party defeated incumbent President John Adams of the Federalist Party.Revolution of 1800
American Revolutionary leader and patriot; an organizer of the Boston Tea Party and signer of the Declaration of Independence (1722-1803).Samuel Adams
were American colonists who stayed loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War.Loyalists
Englishman and Quaker who founded the colony of Pennsylvania (1644-1718)William Penn
intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 17th to 19th century.Enlightenment