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level: Gynecologic and Obstetric Drugs

Questions and Answers List

level questions: Gynecologic and Obstetric Drugs

oral contraceptive drugs, or birth control pills are otherwise known asOCPs or BCPs
oral contraceptive drugs contain a combination of:estrogen and progestins
FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) is secreted by the:anterior pituitary gland
LH (luteinizing hormone)causes follicle to rupture and release mature ovum
monophasic oral contraceptive drugshave 1 phase: fixed dose of a progestins drug and fixed dose of an estrogen drug in one tablet.
phase 1 of biphasic oral contraceptives:fixed doses of both progestins and estrogen drugs.
In phases 2 and 3 of triphasic contraceptives, the levels of progestin and estrogen:vary, going up or down or staying the same from one phase to the next.
In triphasic oral contraceptives, the length of phases:can vary from 5 days to 21 days
four-phasic oral contraceptives:have phases that vary in length of time and in the dosage of different drugs contained in the drugs.
NuvaRing and Ortho Evra are hormone contraceptives withfixed daily doses of a progestins drug and an estrogen drug, not given orally.
Progestins-only contraceptivesare slightly less effective, but they decrease the risk of blood clots.
suppresses the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary glandprogestins and estrogen drugs
serious adverse effects of oral contraceptives include:blood clots, stroke, and heart attack
this drug contributes toward increased risks for blood clots, stroke, and heart attackestrogen
A 21-day pill pack of a monophasic oral contraceptive contains _________ hormone tablets.21
A 28-day pill pack of a monophasic oral contraceptive contains __________ hormone tablets and _________ inert sugar pills.21, 7
The change from taking hormone drugs to taking sugar tablets triggers:the onset of menstruation.
Yasmin is a ___________ oral contraceptive.monophasic
The first oral contraceptive drug that eliminates menstrual periods.Lybrel
The only oral contraceptive drug approved by the FDA to treat premenstrual dysphoric disorderYAZ
2 biphasic oral contraceptive drugs.LoSeasonique and Seasonique
Patients who take ________ or __________ only have menstrual periods 4 times a year.LoSeasonique, Seasonique
Triphasic drug Ortho-Novum 7/7/7 reflects:the number of days in each phase
Also used to treat moderate acne vulgarisTri-Cyclen
2 brand name four-phasic oral contraceptivesNatazia and Quartette
Many of the trade names of this kind of contraceptive drug are women's names.Progestins-only contraceptives
These progestins-only contraceptives are in the form of implants under the skin.Implanon, Nexplanon (generic: etonogestrel)
This progestin-only contraceptive is in the form of a T-shaped device inserted into the uterus.Mirena (levonorgestrol)
These oral progestins-only contraceptives are taken after sex to prevent pregnancy.Plan B, Plan B One-Step, Ella (ulipristal)
St. John's wort (an herb taken for depression) causes hormone levels to _____________, which _________ chance of pregnancy for patients taking oral contraceptives.decrease, increases
Ovulation-stimulating drugs work by stimulating a _________ ovary to develop many follicles and release several _______ ova.non-ovulating, mature
Ovulation-stimulating drugs are appropriate for patients withanovulation, polycystic ovary syndrome, hormonal imbalance
Ovulation-stimulating drugs are not appropriate for patients with infertility due toblocked uterine tubes, or problems that require surgical intervention.
Some ovulation-stimulating drugs work byinhibiting secretion of FSH and LH to prevent premature surging of hormones during ovulation
Some ovulation-stimulating drugs work by acting like the drug:human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
This hormone keeps the endometrium thickened and ready for a fertilized ovum to be implanted.human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
Some ovulation-stimulating drugs work by stimulating the _________ gland to secrete FSH and LH.anterior pituitary
These ovulation-stimulating drugs are made using recombinant DNA technology.follitropin alfa and follitropin beta
This ovulation-stimulating drug is made from the urine of postmenopausal women.Urofollitropin
These progesterone drugs prepare the endometrium to receive fertilized ova.Crinone and Prochieve
These drugs are used to stimulate ovulation in women with polycystic ovaries.Glucophage and Avandia
Glucophage and Avandia are more commonly used to treatType II diabetes
These subcutaneous drugs are used to decrease excessive amounts of gonadotropin-releasing hormone in patients taking ovulation-stimulating drugs.Cetrotide (cetrorelix) and ganirelix
Pregnant women may be given drugs to treat:chronic diseases or acute infections (to protect health of the mother and fetus)
These drugs are routinely prescribed to pregnant women.prenatal vitamins, iron, and folic acid.
Folic acid decreases the incidence of this kind of birth defectneural tube (spina bifida, myelomeningocele)
Drug used in West Germany to treat morning sickness, but caused severe birth defectsThalidomide
The FDA has ____ categories to indicate that a drug may cause birth defects.5
Uterine-relaxing drugs are used to treatpreterm labor contractions
Uterine-relaxing drugs are also known astocolytic drugs
terbutaline (a bronchodilator) can also be used toprevent seizures caused by eclampsia.
magnesium sulfate is also used toprevent and treat seizures caused by eclampsia
The condition where uterine contractions are too weak to deliver a baby is known asuterine inertia
This type of drug is given to increase the strength of uterine contractions.uterine stimulant
This hormone is causes the smooth muscle of the uterus to contract.oxytocin
The drug oxytocin works byincreasing frequency and strength of uterine contractions
Labor consists of uterine contractions anddilation and thinning (defacement) of the cervix
This neurotransmitter secreted by the placenta causes the cervix to widen and thin during laborprostaglandins
The process of the cervix dilating and thinning is also known ascervical ripening
This gel is applied to the cervix to cause it to dilate and thindinoprostone
This drug is taken orally to cause cervical dilation and thinning.misoprostol
This product made from Japanese seaweed is placed in the cervical canal to cause gradual dilation.Laminaria
drugs given to treat labor pains are only administered in these 2 wayssubcutaneously or intravenously
postpartum bleeding is caused byabnormal uterine muscle relaxation
Drugs used to stimulate uterine muscle contraction (to treat postpartum bleeding) includeHemabate, Pitocin, Ergotrate, and Methergine
Endometriosis is a condition whereendometrial tissue travels through the uterine tubes and implants outside of the uterus (on ovaries, abdominal organs, walls of pelvic cavity, etc.)
This condition occurs when endometrial tissue is forced upward through uterine tubes, instead of being pushed downward through the cervix.endometriosis
Hormone drugs can be used to treat endometriosis bysuppressing the menstrual cycle for several months (allowing time for endometrial implants to shrink and disappear)
Danazol, used to treat endometriosis, is also used to treatfibrocycstic breast disease
Goserelin is used to treat endometriosis andbreast and prostate cancer (it is a chemotherapy drug)
dysmenorrhea is caused by a(n) _____________ in prostaglandins that causes the uterus to contract painfully.increase
These 2 types of drugs can be used to treat painful menstrual crampsNSAIDs and COX-2 inhibitors
PMS is characterized by dysmenorrhea, breast tenderness, bloating, andmild mood changes
Midol PMS is a combination drug that containsan analgesic drug, diuretic drug, and sedative drug
PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder) includes symptoms of PMS as well assevere depression
PMDD is considered a _________ disorderpsychiatric
The term for absence of menstruation isamenorrhea
the term for an abnormally heavy menstruation cycle ismenorrhagia
Both amenorrhea and menorrhagia are treated with this type of drugprogestins drug
Vaginal yeast infections are caused by the bacteriaCandida albicans
Vaginal yeast infections are also known asCandidiasis
The ending -___________ is common to generic antiyeast drugs used to treat yeast infections.-azole
Gynazole and AVC are ___________ drugs used to treat ___________.antiyeast, vaginal yeast infections
This type of drug, as well asantiyeast drugs, is used to treat yeast infections.antifungal drugs
The generic name for the trade name drugs Monistat 3 and Monistat 7 ismiconazole
The generic name for Monistat 1 istioconazole
This drug is stronger than the drugs Monistat 3 and Monistat 7Monistat 1 (tioconazole, which is only taken for one day of treatment)
Antiyeast drugs can be administered in these waysorally, topically (creams or ointments), or as vaginal suppositories
Gyne-Lotrimin 3, Gyne-Lotrimin 7, and Mycelex 7 are all drugs used to treatyeast infections.
Nystatin (used to treat yeast infections) is also administered orally to treatyeast infections of the mouth and/or throat
3 types of bacteria that cause bacterial vaginal infections includeHaemophilus, Gardnerella, and Corynebacterium
Tinidazole is a _________ drug used to treat _________.antiprotozoal drug, bacterial vaginal infections
Cleocin, MetroGel-Vaginal, and Tindamax are all used to treatbacterial vaginal infections
Genital warts are also known ascondylomata acuminata
The bacteria that causes gonorrhea and syphilis are both gram- _________.negative
Syphilis is caused by the bacteriaTreponema pallidum
These 2 types of antibiotic drugs are used to treat syphilispenicillins and tetracyclines
"the magic bullet" refers to a drug that was developed to curesyphilis
Painful urination and a thin vaginal discharge are symptoms of this STDchlamydia
Fever, night sweats, weight loss, enlarged lymph nodes, and diarrhea are all symptoms of this STDHIV
CD4 lymphocytes are also known ashelper T-cells
CD8 lymphocytes are also known assuppressor T-cells
The HIV virus invades and kills ___________, which upsets the balance in the immune system.helper T-cells
This category of drug is used to treat HIVantiretroviral drugs
Herpes simplex virus type 2 is also known asgenital herpes
Genital or venereal warts are caused bythe human papillomavirus
This type of drug is used to treat genital wartsantiviral drugs
Greenish-yellow, frothy vaginal discharge with foul odor is a symptom of this STDTrichomoniasis
This oral antiprotozoal drug is used to treat trichomoniasistinidazole
menopause is characterized by a _________ in the amount of estradiol and progesterone secreted by the ovaries.decreasing
HRT is an abbreviation forhormone replacement therapy
Long-term use of HRT can reduce the risk ofosteoporosis, and can keep blood cholesterol levels low
Most doctors recommend ________-term use of HRT in younger women who are experiencing severe menopausal symptoms.short
Premarin, Menest, and Ogen are all ___________ drugs used to treat symptoms of menopause.estrogen HRT
Climara, Estraderm, and Vivelle are all _________ drugs used to treat symptoms of menopause.estrogen HRT
Premarin is made frompregnant mares' urine
climacteric refers tothe physiologic and psychological changes that occur in menopause
Climara Pro and CombiPatch (used to treat menopause) can be administered asa transdermal patch
the hrt in Femhrt refers tohormone replacement therapy
Brisdelle (paroxetine) is a(n) __________________ drug that is also used to treat hot flashes.antidepressant
Remifemin is an OTC drug used to treat menopause and it containsthe herb black cohosh
Remifemin does not have increased risks of blood clots, stroke, or heart attack because it does not containestradiol
Osphena is a(n) ________________ drug used to treat painful intercourse for women who are going through menopause.estrogen agonist/antagonist