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level: Level 1

Questions and Answers List

level questions: Level 1

Each DNA nucleotide is composed of ____a five-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and one of four nitrogenous bases
Which statement describes a difference between meiosis I and meiosis II?Homologous chromosomes separate during meiosis I; sister chromatids separate during meiosis II.
The genome of an organism contains 14% guanine; therefore, its genome also contains ____% thymine and ____% cytosine.36; 14
Suppose a DNA replication error is not corrected. After two cell divisions, how many of the four daughter cells contain this mutation (assuming that the mistake was never corrected)?four
Homologous chromosomes ____contain a maternal and paternal chromosome
After the first meiotic division, the two daughter cells ____have half the diploid number of chromosomes
How are purines distinguished from pyrimidines?Purines are derived from a pair of fused C-N rings, while pyrimidines are derived from a single C-N ring.
Before anaphase II, the sister chromatids form a single chromosome; after anaphase II, each sister chromatid is an individual chromosome.What is the difference between sister chromatids before and after anaphase II?
Adding nucleotides onto a growing DNA strand during DNA replication in cells occurs in ____the 5' → 3' direction only
The transforming principle described by Griffith in his work with Streptococcus pneumoniae is ____DNA
When Hershey and Chase labeled viruses with radioactive phosphorus, they concluded that the virus injects DNA and not protein into its host because ____most of the radioactive DNA was inside the bacteria
Nondisjunction during meiosis I results in pole of the cell receiving neither member of a homologous pair of chromosomes
Suppose that you performed a version of the Hershey and Chase experiment, this time using 32P-labeled viruses that insert their double-stranded DNA into the DNA of the cells that they infect. The viral DNA is then treated as part of the cell's own DNA and is replicated during DNA replication and passed onto daughter cells when the cell divides. You infect a population of cells with the 32P-labeled viruses, and then let the infected cells go through two generations of cell divisions. If you then examine the cells, you should find 32P-labeled DNA in ____ of the cells.about 1/2
Telophasemitotic spindle disassembles
ProphaseDuplicated chromosomes condense
Metaphasechromosomes align at the center of the cell
Anaphasesister chromatids are pulled to opposite spindle poles
ProphaseRNA synthesis shuts down
Telophasedaughter chromosomes decondense and the nuclear envelope reforms
Prometaphasenuclear envelope disappears
Prophase (also)spindle fiber begins to form
Which statement describes a similarity between meiosis and mitosis?DNA is replicated only once in both processes
The daughter cells produced by meiosis are ____genetically different from the parent and each other
A DNA double helix has two strands that are held together by ____hydrogen bonds
During which phase(s) of mitosis are chromosomes composed of two sister chromatids?prophase, prometaphase, and metaphase
Sexual reproduction has an advantage over asexual reproduction by ____creating more genetic diversity
Homologous chromosomes undergo recombination during ____prophase I
In their experiments to identify the transforming principle, Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty used enzymes that break down ____protein, DNA, and RNA
What happens when living R strain Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria are mixed with heat-killed S strain Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria?The R strain bacteria are transformed into S strain bacteria.
Which nucleotide sequence is complementary to the DNA sequence 5'-GACGTT-3'?3'-CTGCAA-5'
Figure 14.1 The figure above depicts the result of an experiment to determine how DNA replication occurs. Based on these results, it appears that after replication, each new DNA molecule contains old DNA strand and one new DNA strand
Hershey and ChaseShowed that the genetic material of bacteriophage T2 is DNA
Watson and CrickWorked out the double helix model for DNA structure
Meselson and StahlShowed that DNA replication in Escherichia coli is semiconservative
Avery, MacLeod, and McCartyShowed that DNA is the transforming principle responsible for transforming nonvirulent Streptococcus pneumoniae into a virulent strain
GriffithShowed that a transforming principle from heat-killed S strain Streptococcus pneumoniae could be used to make the R strain virulent