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level: Exam Two

Questions and Answers List

Bones, Muscle, Blood

level questions: Exam Two

a muscle that draws a body part toward the median lineadductor
a muscle that draws a body part away from the median lineabductor
a ring of muscle that contracts to close an openingsphincter
gives body its shape and protects inner structuresskeleton
location of blood formationmedullary cavity
area of movement between two bonesJoint
part of the skull that surrounds the brainneurocranium
part of the skull that makes up the faceviscerocranium
slightly movable joint in the vertebraemodified symphysis
Shock absorber in between the vertebraeintervertebral discs
only fibrocartilagetrue symphysis
very flexible cartilagehyaline cartilage
very strong cartilagefibrocartilage
bones not on the median line - limbsappendicular skeleton
bones along the median lineaxial skeleton
bones that make up the shoulder - scapula, claviclepectoral girdle
bones that make up the pelvis - illium, ischium, pubispelvic girdle
cavity that articulates with the head of the femuracetabulum
appears solidcompact bone
appears spongycancellous bone
growth plate in bones - allows growth in lengthepiphyseal plate
surrounds bone - allows growth in diameterperiosteum
water - 25% - absorbs shock minerals - 45% - calcium and phosphorus organic matter - 30% - collagenbone composition
bone stem cell - stimulated to differentiateosteoprogenitor
bone builder - secretes collagen for matrixosteoblasts
mature bone cells within the matrixosteocytes
bone breaker - secretes digestive enzyme to reabsorb boneosteoclasts
bone formation from tissue other than skeletalheteroplastic
bone formation from cartilageendochondral
bone formation without cartilageintramembranous
pushes epiphysial away from diaphysisproliferation
reshaping of bone in response to overloadingbone remodeling
ability of a muscle to respond to a stimulusexcitability
ability of a muscle to be stretchedextensibility
ability of a muscle to bounce back to its original shapeelasticity
found in the repro. and resp. tracts and in blood vessels no visible striation and a central nucleus responsible for contraction of blood vesselssmooth muscle
found only in the heart striated with a central nucleus and intercalated disks responsible for making the heart contractcardiac muscle
red, white, or intermediate not branched and has no intercalated disks responsible for moving the skeletonskeletal muscle
least moveable end of a muscleorigin
most moveable end of a muscleinsertion
decreases joint angleflexors
increases joint angleextensors
basic functional unit of skeletal musclesarcomere
no action potential due to lack of ATPcontracture
specialized pacemaker cells controlled by the ANScardiac contractions
slower rate - less ATP - maintains tone with less energysmooth contractions
muscle growth due to increase in muscle fiber cell sizehypertrophy
muscle growth due to increase in number of muscle fiber cellshyperplasia
decrease in muscle sizeatrophy
responsible for immune responsewhite blood cells
responsible for binding and transporting oxygenred blood cells
responsible for clottingplatelets
liquid component of bloodserum
a leukocyte that has granules in its cytoplasmgranulocyte
fight infection - most common WBCneutrophils
inflammation responsebasophils
fight parasiteseosinophils
a leukocyte with few or no granules in its cytoplasmagranulocyte
originate in bone marrowmonocytes
originate in lymph stem cellslymphocytes
a mature blood cell that contains hemoglobin to carry oxygen to the bodily tissues; a biconcave disc that has no nucleuserythrocyte
the process of producing red blood cells by the stem cells in the bone marrowerythropoiesis
low RBC count due to blood loss or low ironanemia
high RBC countpolycythemia
prevention of blood losshemostasis
narrowing of damaged blood vesselsvasoconstriction
globular protein that binds and holds H2Oalbumin
protein that aids in liver function, blood clotting, and fighting infectionsglobulins
glycoprotein that stops excessive bleedingfibrinogen