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level: Level 1

Questions and Answers List

level questions: Level 1

What is the term for cramp-like pains and fatigue in the calves brought on by exercise and relieved by rest?Intermittent Claudication
What does PATCHES stand for?Pulse, Appearance, Temperature, Capillary refill, Hardness, Edema, Sensation
What increases cardiovascular events in people aged 40-70?Every 20 (systolic)/10 (diastolic) mm-Hg increase in blood pressure
How long does one cardiac cycle last?0.8 seconds
SA node is also know as the..Pacemaker; regulates the heartbeat
How often should peripheral pulse be checked after cardiac catheterization?Every 15 minutes for one hour, and then with decreasing frequency
Cardiac catheterization/angiography requires a check for which allergy?Iodine
Following cardiac catheterization, the patient is required to lie..Supine, with compression device over insertion site (to prevent hemorrhage)
List the entire blood circulation patternSuperior or inferior vena cava- Right atrium- Tricuspid valve- Right ventricle- Pulmonary semilunar valve- pulmonary artery- Capillaries in the lungs- Pulmonary veins- Left atrium- Mitral (bicuspid) valve- Left ventricle- Aortic semilunar valve- Aorta
How long can ambulatory ECG's monitor the heart?12, 24, 48 hours
What can PET detect in an asymptomatic patient?Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
What is the desirable total cholesterol level?Less than 200 (borderline is 200-239, high is greater than 240)
Which lab value is used to monitor/rule out inflammatory and infective conditions including MI, endocarditis, and rheumatic fever?Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)
Sinus tachycardia is a rapid regular rhythm of..100-150 bpm or more
Sinus bradycardia is a heart rate of..less than 60 bpm
Supraventricular tachycardia is characterized by the sudden onset of pulse rate of..150-250 bpm
Define Atrial fibrillationDisorganized electrical activity in the atria causing it to quiver and beat chaotically; 350-600 bpm
What is the ventricular response rate to atrial fibrillation if left untreated?100-180 bpm
What is the goal of anticoagulation therapy?To maintain INR between 2 and 3
What is TEE (Transesophageal echocardiography) used for?To detect a thrombus in the atria before proceeding with cardioversion
What are the symptoms of first degree heart block?Is often asymptomatic
What are the symptoms of second degree heart block?Vertigo, weakness and irregular pulse
What are the signs/symptoms of third degree heart block?Hypotension, angina, bradycardia; heart rate is 30-40 bpm
What is atrioventricular block?A defect in the AV junction slows or impairs conduction of impulses from SA node to ventricles
What are early (right or left) ventricular beats that occur in conjunction with the underlying rhythm?Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVC)
Ventricular tachycardia occurs when..3 or more successive PVC's occur
The quivering of the ventricular musculature of the heart is known as..Ventricular fibrillation
What is usually the cause of ventricular fibrillation?Myocardial or ischemic infarction
Which is the most serious type of arrhythmia?Ventricular fibrillation
What is the most effective way of ending ventricular fibrillation?Defibrillation
Where is a Pacemaker placed?In the right atrium, right ventricle, or both
Where is a permanent pacemaker power source placed?Subcutaneously over pectoral muscle on nondominant side
What is the aim of CPR?To establish circulation and ventilation; prevention of damage to brain, heart, liver and kidneys .
What is CAB?Circulation, restore Airway, restore Breathing
Symptoms of pacemaker failure:weakness, vertigo, chest pain, pulse changes
What is angina pectoris?Paroxysmal thoracic pain and choking feeling caused by decreased oxygen flow to the myocardium.
What is the number one killer in the US?Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
What kind of angina is an unpredictable, transient episode of prolonged discomfort that appears at rest, has never been experienced before, or is worse than previous episodes?Unstable angina
Angina pectoris commonly feels like..a heaviness of tightness of the chest; sometimes thought to be indigestion.
What is not usually described as a sharp pain?Angina pectoris
What is the first-line treatment of angina pectoris?Antiplatelet aggregation therapy
Internal mammary arteries are the preferred blood vessels for..Bypass surgery (artery bypass graft)
Angioplasty allows widening of the coronary artery without:Open heart surgery
How long should a patient receive anticoagulation therapy after a stent placement?3 months
What causes a myocardial infarction?Obstruction of a major coronary artery or one of its branches by atherosclerotic plaque or an embolus; leading to necrosis of the heart muscle
How long does a myocardial infarction last?30 minutes to several hours (or longer)
What kind of MI causes more deaths?STEMI (ST elevation)
How long does it take for myocardial cells to die?4 to 6 hours
Mortality and (MI) infarction size can be reduced significantly if thrombolytic therapy starts within..30-60 minutes of symptom onset
What are the 2 major parts of cardiac rehabilitation?1. Exercise training 2. Education to understand and reduce risk of future heart conditions
What is heart failure?Circulatory congestion caused by the heart's inability to pump effectively
What is the most common diagnosis for the hospitalized patient over 65?Heart failure
Where does heart failure usually begin?The left ventricle
One liter of fluid is equal to:1Kg (2.2lbs)
One liter of fluid is equal to :1Kg (2.2 lbs)
Patients with stage III and IV heart failure are at high risk for:Major depression
What is the most noninvasive diagnostic test used to detect heart failure?Echocardiogram
What are the most effective drugs for managing heart failure?Beta blockers
How should a patient with pulmonary edema sit?Upright, with legs in dependent position
What is valvular stenosis?Thickening of the valve tissue, causing the valve to narrow
What is valvular insufficiency?The heart valve is unable to close completely
What disease occurs when valves are damaged and cannot open and close properly?Valvular heart disease
What is a prominent factor in development of valvular heart disease?Rheumatic fever; usually 10-40 years after an episode
Valvular heart disease requires regular visits to:The dentist; good oral hygiene is important
Which are the two medications approved by the FDA to treat heart failure?Carvedilol and metoprolol
Which 2 positions lower the oxygen requirements in someone with heart failure?1. Elevating head of the bed to 45 degrees 2. Have patient sit at the edge of the bed with arms resting on overbed table
Which antibiotic is responsible for the decline in rheumatic fever?Penicillin
How does rheumatic heart disease affect the heart?The affected tissue develops areas of necrosis, which leaves scar tissue when it heals.; usually resulting in thickened and deformed valves
What sounds can be auscultated in a patient with rheumatic heart disease?Murmurs of friction rub
Small erythematous circles and wavy lines on trunk or abdomen are skin manifestations of:Rheumatic heart disease
Rheumatic fever is caused by:Untreated childhood pharyngeal or upper respiratory tract infection; group A beta-hemolytic streptococci
When can a patient without carditis be ambulatory?As soon as acute symptoms subside
Patients with deformed heart valves should be given what kind of treatment before surgery and dental work?Antibiotics
How much fluid is normally found in the pericardial sac?15 to 50 mL
How much fluid develops in the pericardial sac in pericarditis?150- 200 mL
What can alleviate pain due to pericarditis?Sitting up and leaning forward; aggravated by lying supine, deep breathing, coughing, swallowing, moving the trunk
What kind of pain does pericarditis cause?Debilitating pain, much like a myocardial infarction
What is the infection or inflammation of the inner membranous lining of the heart, particularly the heart valves?Endocarditis
People using illegal IV drugs are at high risk for what kind of infection of the heart?Endocarditis
What is the most common symptom of cardiomyopathy?Severe exercise intolerance
How long does antibiotic therapy last for a patient with pericarditis?1-2 months
Which drug is most commonly associated with cardiomyopathy?Cocaine; intense vasoconstriction of the coronary arteries
Which term describes a group of heart muscle diseases that primarily affect the structural or functional ability of the myocardium?Myocarditis
What kind of heart inflammation is relatively rare?Myocarditis
What is the most common type of primary cardiomyopathy?Dilated cardiomyopathy
A heart transplant is preferred for patients who ae unlikely to survive more than how many months?12 months
What are some contraindications for heart transplant?Active infection, active or recent malignancy, severe obesity, active peptic ulcer disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus with end organ damage
The maximum acceptable ischemic time for cardiac transplant is:4 to 6 hours
What type of therapy begins in the operating room of a patient receiving a heart transplant?Immunosuppressive therapy
The peripheral vascular system consists of what?Arteries, capillaries, and veins
Stage 1 hypertension is defined as:Blood pressure 140-159/90-99 mm-hg
A blood pressure of 160/100mm/hg is defined as:Stage 2 hypertension
What is a hypertensive crisis?A blood pressure of 180/110mm-hg or greater
What is malignant hypertension?Severe, rapid elevation in blood pressure that damages the small arterioles in major organs
Malignant hypertension is most common in which individul?African-American men under 40 years of age
Which organs does malignant hypertension most commonly damage?Heart, kidneys, brain, eyes
Which primary dysfunction of the heart is not associated with CAD, hypertension, vascular or pulmonary disease?Cardiomyopathy
What are the classic five P's of arterial occlusion?Pain, Pulselessness, Pallor, Paresthesia, Paralysis
What is an arterial emboli?Blood clots in the arterial blood stream
What kind of medications dissolve an existing blood clot?Thrombolytics and fibrinolytics