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level: Level 1

Questions and Answers List

level questions: Level 1

Viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and some algaeMicroorganisms
Microbiological, chemical, physical, allergenicTypes of Hazards (4)
Vet drugs, cleaning materials, food additives, pesticidesChemical Hazard Examples
Infectious bacteria, toxin producing organisms, spoilage bacteria, yeasts, mouldsMicrobiological Hazard Examples
Metal, glass, dead insects, hairPhysical hazards examples
Milk, Eggs, Peanuts, Nuts (almond, brazil, pistachio, macadamia, pecan etc.), Fish, Crustaceans (Inc. prawns and lobster), Molluscs (Inc. squid, snails, mussels), Lupin, Sesame, Soya, Wheat/Gluten, Celery, Mustard, Sulphur Dioxide.Allergens List (14)
1µm (micrometre) = 10-3 mmUnit of Measurement for bacteria
Cocci (spherical), Bacilli (rod shaped), Spiral bacteria (twisted)Three shapes of bacteria
1 µm SphericalCocci bacteria
Rod shaped, 0.5-1 µm width, 1-4 µm longBacilli
Twisted shape 1-3 µm in length, 0.3-0.6 µm widthSpiral bacteria
Can assume several shapesPleomorphic bacteria
DiplococciCocci that remain in pairs after dividing
StreptococciCocci that remain in chains after dividing
TetradsCocci that divide in two planes and remain in groups of four
sardinaeCocci that divide in three planes and remain in groups as a cube of 8
StaphylococciCocci that divide in multiple planes- grape like clusters
Bacilli that appear in pairs after divisionDiplobacilli
Appear in chains after divisionStreptobacilli
Short and fat so appear like cocciCoccobacilli
Spiral bacteria that look like curved rodsVibrio
Helical shape and rigid bodiesSpirilla
Helical shape and flexible bodies. Move by means of axial filaments (which look like flagella)Spirochetes
Cell wall, cell membrane, cytoplasm, nuclear materialEssential stricture of bacteria (4)
Capsule, flagella, pili, sporeOther structures of bacteria (4)
highly resistant, dormant structures (i.e. no metabolic activity) formed in response to adverse environmental conditions.Spore
is a long, whip-like structure that helps some single celled organisms moveFlagella
is a very large structure of many bacteria.[1] It is a polysaccharide layer that lies outside the cell envelope, and is thus deemed part of the outer envelope of a bacterial cellCapsule
Cell walls contain many layers of peptidoglycan and contain teichoic acidsGram Positive bacteria
Multiple layers found in gram positive bacteria. Single of thin layer in gram negative.Peptidoglycan
Only found in gram positive bacteriaTeichoic acids
Have a lipopolysaccharide-lipoprotein-phospholipid outer membrane surrounding a thin/single peptidoglycan layer.Gram negative bacteria
thread like structures that make up mouldshyphae
Mass of hyphaeMycelium
Grow by extending length of hyphae (apical or intercalary growth)Mould growth
Mould growth, hyphae extends at the tipApical growth
Mould growth, hypha extend within their lengthIntercalary Growth
Cross walls in hyphae, presence of which used in identificationSeptate
Mycotoxins and aflatoxinsMould toxins
Sexual spores are thick walled resting spores called zygosporesZygomycetes
Spores borne internally in sac called and ascusAscomycetes
Spores borne externally on a club-shaped structure called a basidiumBasidiomycetes
Have no known sexual state in their life cycleDeuteromycetes or fungi Imperfecti
Larger than bacteria. Oval or rod shaped.Yeasts
How yeast multiply (asexual reproduction)Budding
Making beer, wine, spirits, bread and fermented foods. Produces carbon dioxide, alcohol and/or organic acidsYeast use in food production
Pathogenic fungi have 2 forms. Moulds at ambient temperatures and yeasts and body temperatures.Dimorphism
1.Bacteria have the shortest generation time compared to yeasts and moulds. 2. Some bacteria more heat resistant than Y&M 3.Y&M can grow at low pH and low Aw and under high osmotic pressureDifferences between bacteria, yeasts and moulds (3)
the minimum pressure which needs to be applied to a solution to prevent the inward flow of its pure solvent across a semipermeable membraneOsmotic Pressure
Acellular, obligate intracellular parasites (need a ‘host’), no ATP generating system, no ribosomes or means of protein synthesis.Viruses (4 points)
DNA or RNA (never both), Capsid (coat protein). Some viruses: envelope or enzymesVirus Structure (2 main, 2 optional)
>50%The Peptidoglycan layer accounts for what percentage of the dry weight of cell wall in many gram-positive bacteria.