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level: Level 1

Questions and Answers List

level questions: Level 1

1. Attachment of muscles through tendons 2. Protection of vital organs such as nervous system in cranial cavity 3. Reservoirs of minerals such as calcium and phosphorous 4. Hemopoiesis: manufacture of blood cells in red bone narrow 5. Storage of triglycerides (fat storage) stored in yellow marrowDiscuss the 5 functions of support, protection, assistance in movement, mineral homeostasis, blood cell production, and triglyceride storage.
Longer than they are wide EX: humerus, femur, phalanges, etc.Long Bones
Cube shaped EX: wrist and ankle boneShort Bones
thin, flattened, and a bit curved EX: Sternum, scapula, ribs, and skullFlat Bones
Vertebrae and hip bonesIrregular bones
special type of short bone that develop in tendons under stress PatellaSesamoid Bones
shaft hollow in middle of bone and contains mostly yellow marrowDiaphysis in Long Bone and what type of marrow?
Runs length of diaphysis and contains yellow marrow (storage of triglycerides)Medullary cavity in long bone and what type of marrow?
ends of bone Red marrow in proximal epiphysis of femur and humerus Yellow marrow in distal end of epiphysisEpiphysis in Long bone and what type of marrow?
Between diaphysis and epiphysisMetaphysis in long bone
A layer of hyaline cartilage that allows diaphysis to grow in length -Growth plateEpiphyseal plate in long bone
Bony structure that replaces epiphyseal plate when bone stops growingEpiphyseal line in Long Bone
Outside covering of bone except at joint surface and present as 2 layersPeriosteum
Osteoprogenitor cells and osteoblastsInner layer of Periosteum contains what cells?
Dense irregular CT (fibrous layer)Outter layer of periosteum is made of what CT?
Outer layer because it contains blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerves that pass into boneIs the inner or outer layer of periosteum vascular?
osteoprogenitor cells, osteoblasts, and osteoclastsEndosteum of long bone consists of what cells?
line medullary cavity, central and volksmann canals, and covers trabeculae of spongy boneEndosteum of long bone lines what cavities?
Covers each epiphysis Hyaline cartilageArticular cartilage of long bone covers what surface and is made of what cartilage?
friction and damage at jointsWhat does articular cartilage prevent?
Derived from menenchyme (CT) Capable of mitosis and develops into osteoblasts Located in inner periosteum and endosteum in volksmann and central canalsOsteoprogenitor Cells: what CT, capable of mitosis? Location?
Derived from menenchyme (CT) Capable of mitosis and develops into osteoblasts Located in inner periosteum and endosteum in volksmann and central canalsOsteoprogenitor Cells: what CT, capable of mitosis? Location?
-NOT capable of mitosis -Produce collagen and bone tissue -Located in inner periosteum and endosteum in volksmann and central canals -Secrete bone matrixOsteoblasts: capable of mitosis? What fiber and tissue is produced? Location? Secrete what?
-Moniter and mineralize bone matrix -Located in lacuna -Mature bone cellOsteocytes: Location? What is it? Function?
-Develop from monocytes Release collagenase and acids -Located in endosteumOsteoclasts: develop from? Releases what that digests bone? Location?
Osteoprogenitor, osteoblasts, osteocytes, bone lining cells, and osteoclastsSoft Organic Components: which cells allow bone to resist tension (stretch)
Sacrificial Bonds: stretch and break easily on impact, helping prevent fracturesSoft organic components: what type of bonds?
Mineral salts: calcium phosphate located around collagen fibersHard Inorganic Components?
a. 25% water, 25% collagen fiber, 50% calcium phosphate b. collagen fibers produced by osteoblasts c. Osteoblasts become trapped in lacuna; known as osteocytes d. Cytoplasmic extensions from osteocytes are located in canalculi e. Matrix arranged in concentric rings around central canal called lamella f. Osteon: central canal and surrounding lamellaProcess of creating an osteon
1. Made of TRABECULAE 2. Fill inner layer of most bones 3. Bone marrow cavity absent 4. Bone marrow produces red corpuscles and white granular corpuscles 5. Forms the ends of epiphyses of long bones5 Characteristics of Spongy Bone
1. Made of OSTEONS 2. Fill outer layer of most bones 3.Bone marrow cavity present in center 4. Bone marrow stores fat 5. Forms shaft or diaphysis of long bone5 Characteristics of Compact bone
Centrally located mesenchymal cells cluster and differentiate into osteoblasts forming an ossification center that produces the first trabeculae of spongy boneStep 1 of Intramembranous Formation
-Osteoblasts begin to secrete osteoid, which calcifies in a few days -Trapped osteoblasts become osteocytesStep 2 of Intramembranous Ossification
-Accumulating osteoid is laid down between embryonic blood vessels in a manner that results in a network of trabeculae -Vascularized mesenchyme condenses on the external face of the woven bone and becomes the periosteumStep 3 of Intramembranous Ossification
-Trabeculae just deep to the periosteum thickens and mature lamellar bone replaces them forming compact bone plates -Spongy bone consisting of distinct trabeculae persists internally and its vascular tissue becomes red marrowStep 4 of Intramembranous Ossification
1. Blood vessels penetrate the perichondrium in center of diaphysis and stimulate osteoprogenitor cells of internal layer of perichondrium to enlarge and become osteoblasts 2. Osteoblasts secrete enzyme, encouraging Ca salts to secrete matrix 3. Osteoblasts form thin layer of calcified bone (bony collar) 4. Bony collar and newly calcified matrix restrict nutrient flow to chondrocytes, so they die opening cavities 5. In cavities, osteoblasts form new spongy bone tissue 6. Osteoclasts digest out more cavity, forming marrow cavity for diaphysisEnchondrial Ossification: Steps at primary ossification center
-More blood vessels enter diaphysis bringing with osteoprogenitor cells that develop into osteoblasts which produce spongy bone -Secondary centers do not begin until after birth -After secondary centers have formed, bone tissue completely replaces cartilage except in Articular cartilage and epiphyseal plateEnchondrial Ossification: Steps of Secondary Ossification Center
Resting Zone: epiphyseal side (no mitosis) Proliferating cartilage zone: mitosis Hypertrophic cartilage zone: cartilage cells enlarging, older chondrocytes in stack are closer to diaphysis, lacunae erode and enlarge, leaving interconnecting spaces Calcified cartilage zone: dying cartilage cells on diaphyseal plate , matrix begins to deteriorate, allowing blood vessels to invade Ossification Zone: calcified spicules are invaded marrow elements from mudullary cavity, osteoclasts partly erode cartilage spicules then osteoblasts cover them with new bone4 Zones of epiphyseal plate
1. New osteons are constructed on outside of bone 2. Osteoblasts from periosteum add new bone tissue, enclosing a blood vessel running through periosteum 3. Once blood vessel's enclosed, periosteum becomes endosteum inside the newly formed canal 4. Osteoblasts in endosteum continue to make more bone tissue in concentric rings resulting in a new osteon 5. While new bone is being made on outside of bone, osteoclasts in medullary cavity endosteum destroy bone lining marrow cavityGrowth in Thickness steps
Osteoclasts: move along bone surface, digging depressions as they break down bone matrix (break down to free calcium) Osteoblasts: deposit calcium into bone, remaking it' BOTH MAINTAIN CA HOMEOSTASIS AND KEEPS BONE STRONGDiscuss role of osteoclasts and osteoblasts in remodeling process
Normal bone growth in young peopleGrowth Hormone (pituitary gland and thyroxin)
Increases Ca in blood and increases blood calcium levels when they drop too lowParathyroid Hormone
-Increases osteoblast activity -Accelerates deposit of Ca into bone -Blood Ca levels decrease -Released from thyroid gland, decreases blood calcium levels when they are too highCalcitonin (thyroid)
-Sun converts cholesterol into vitamin D -Needed to absorb Ca from intestineVitamin D (calcitriol)
Decrease in vitamin D in children; cartilage cells grow; ossification occurs but little calcification; bones bow under weight because they are softRickets
Decrease in vitamin D in adultsOsteomalacia
-Pourous bones -Caused by decrease in sex hormones with increasing age; more popular in menapousing womenOsteoporosis (sex hormone)
Bacterial infection in bone (staph) Bacteria reaches bone by blood, fractures, sinus infection, tooth abscessOsteomyelitis
Malignant cancer of osteoblasts; predominant in young people -spread is likely; amputationOsteogenic Sarcoma
-Most common form of bone cancer -Myeloid: marrow -Can either start in bone or after metastasis from breast, prostate cancers, interferes with hemopoiesis (production of blood cells)Malignant Myelomas
broken ends do not penetrate through skinSimple/Closed fracture
broken ends protrude through skinCompound/open fracture
bone shattered into many piecesComminuted fracture
Bone is crushed or driven into another boneCompression/Impacted fracture
One side breaks, other side bendsGreenstick fracture
Broken bone portion is pressed inwardDepressed Fracture
ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are appliedSpiral Fracture
Epiphysis separates from diaphysis along epiphyseal platesEpiphyseal Fracture
1. Hematoma: from bleeding of blood vessel into osteons, periosteum, marrow cavity 2. Fibrocartilaginous callus: forms a bridge of fibrocartilage between separated area 3. Bony callus: growth of new bone tissue replaces fibrocartilage bone -remodels to be like other boneSteps of Fracture Repair