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5 functions of blood
transports, regulation of pH and osmosis, maintain of body temp., immunity, and clotting
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blood - Details
1) Chapter 1
5 functions of blood
Transports, regulation of pH and osmosis, maintain of body temp., immunity, and clotting
What does blood transport?
Nutrients & waste products, gases ( oxygen & carbon dioxide), processed molecules: vitamin d, lactic acid, enzymes, hormones
What is the regulation of pH and osmosis
7.35-7.45 pH range which is maintained through buffers, ion balance ( sodium potassium, chlorine, calcium)
Immunity cells and proteins are transported in where?
What does blood clot?
Proteins and fibers
Blood is 55% of what?
Matrix, liquid, plasma
Blood is 45% of what?
Cells and cell fragments
What type of tissue is blood?
Plasma is made of three components, name all three, which is the most abundant?
Plasma is made up of 91% water, 7% protein, and 2% other solutes (nutrients, ions, waste, etc.). Water is the most abundant, making up 91% of plasma.
The two main components of blood are ----- and ----, which is the most abundant?
Liquid matrix and plasma, plasma
Which is the most abundant protein in blood? What is the function of this protein? Which body organ makes this protein?
Plasma albumin, maintaining blood colloid osmotic pressure, liver
List the types of globulins found in blood, and their function. Note the origin of these proteins (what organ makes them)
Alpha and beta are transport molecules,Gamma = immunity
What two types of plasma proteins transport thyroid hormones? What is the difference between plasma and serum?
Alpha and beta, serum doesnt have fibrinogen and other clotting factors while plasma does
What is the buffy coat? Explain what is hematopoiesis and where it occurs, mention the specific places in adults where hematopoiesis occurs.
Where leukoctyes and platelets are found. are blood cell formation takes place in red bone marrow in sternum, ribs, vertebrae, pelvis, proximal epiphysis of humerus, and femur
What is a hemocytoblast, what would happen to blood if hemocytoblasts are destroyed ?
Stem cell precursor of all formed elements found in red bone marrow
.- List some of the characteristics of a mature erythrocyte. What is the reason why RBC’s to loose their nucleus and organelles (what takes the place of these structures inside the cell)?
Lacks nucleus and organelles, they are filled with hemoglobin(Hb)
What is the structure of hemoglobin? What part of the hemoglobin binds to oxygen?
Embryonic Hb, fetal Hb, adult Hb. ebryonic Hb & fetal Hb
How many red blood cells are in males?
How many red blood cells are in females?
What are red blood cells?
Are biconcave, flexible discs
What does the shape of red blood cells?
Provides an increased surface that provides more room for hemoglobin
What does mature cells lack?
Nucleus and oranelles
What are the functions for red blood cells?
Transport 02 from lungs to tissue, transport co2 from tissue to lungs
What does hemoglobin consist of?
2 alpha chains + 2 beta chains, bound to a heme group
What type of protein is hemoglobin?
Heme group consist of?
Red pigment molecule w/ an Fe at its center
1 iron/ heme group binds what?
Each binds 1 oxygen
4 heme groups/ hemoglobin....
4 oxygen/Hb molecule
Whats the name of element of Hb w/ oxygen and what's its color?
Oxyhemoglobin, bright red
Name of element of Hb w/o oxygen and color?
Deoxyhemoglobin, dark red
Name of Hb+ CO2 and color?
Carbaminohemoglobin, dark red
How long does erythropoiesis takes?
When the cells mature in hemocytoblast, what is the last stage?
What are the nutrients needed for erythropoiesis?
Folate, b12, iron
How long does red blood cells live?
Old red blood cells are destroyed in the what, and phagocytized by what?
Hemoglobin is broke down into what two things, which is the break down of what?
Heme and amino acid, globin protien
Are iron recycled and reused?
What is heme broken down into?
Biliverdin + iron
Whats biliverdin converted into?
What is free bilirubin converted into and where?
Conjugated bilirubin, liver
Yellow coloration of skin and white of the eyes due to an accumulation of bilirubin in blood
What causes jaundice?
Infections, blockage of bile ducts, excessive destruction of red blood cells
What are leukocytes and where are they found?
White blood cells, found in buffy coat?
What are the two types of white blood cells?
Granulocytes and agranulocytes
Three types of granulocytes?
Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
Two types of agranulocytes?
Immunce system cells characteristics
Amoeboid movement, diapedesis, chemotaxis, pus
Hos many percentage of white blood cells in neutrophils have?
What does neutrophils have?
Granules and lobated nuclei(PMN)
Neutrophilis are the first to do what?
First responders, first to leave circulation
Lysozymes(bacterial killing enzyme)
Numbers of neutrophils increase during what?
Eosinophils has how many percentage of white blood cells?
Eosinophils has what?
Granules, 2 lobs of lobated nuclei
Numbers elevated during what?
Allergic and inflammatory reactions
When does eosinophils leave circulation?
Whats does eosinophils secrete?
Anti-inflammatory chemicals called anti-histamins
How much are the percentage of circulation in basophils in white blood cells
What are the size of granules in basophils and what do they stain?
Numbers increased in basophils in
Allergic and inflammatory reactions
What does histamin cause?
Inflammation and heparin, which prevents clotting
Percentage of circulation in lymphocytes
Is lymphocytes slightly larger than red blood cells?
Where is lymphocytes most found in?
What's lymphocytes involved in?
When does numbers increase in lymphocytes
During viral infections
Monocytes have what percentage od white blood cells?
Is monocytes the largest of all white blood cell?
What is monocytes made of?
What dies monocytes become?
Numbers in monocytes increases during
What is monocytes involve in?
Platelets are made by
Platelets prevent blood loss in two ways
Forming platelets plug, promoting formation and contraction of clots that help seal breaks in vessels
3 steps of hemostasis
Vascular spasms,platelet plug formation, clotting or coagulation
What are vascular spasms
Causes blood vessel to shrink
What is clotting or coagulation in hemostasis
Formation of a fibrin clot
Chemicals in vascular spasms
Thromboxanes and endothelins
What is patelet plug formation
Platelet adhesion to exposed collagen of damaged blood vessel
What does platelet release
ADP and thromboxanes
Coagulation release what
In extrinsic & intrinsic pathway, the activated factor x is a common pathway
Fibrinogen - fibrin
What are two characteristics of extrinsic pathway
Its quicker, can be activated by glass
What its a characteristic on intrinsic pathway
Produces more thrombin
In the control of clor formation, anticoagulats in blood have
Heparin, antithrombin, prostacyclin
What is fibrinolysis
The process by which plasmin hydrolyzes clots
What is plasminogen
The precursor of plasmin
What does blood fractionation have
Packed red blood cells, plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitates
Most human red blood cells have what
A protein inserted in its cell membrane called antigen d
What is the percentge of the population that is Rh+ and has D protein in their red blood cells
A person who lacks antigen D will make what
Antibody anti D if exposed to the antigen
When do antibodies develope?
ONLY after exposure to D antigen
What does a Rh negative mother carry
Rh positive fetus
What is the prevention of hemolytic disease of the newbrown
Give mother anti-d antibodies
What does immunoglobulin contain
Anti D antibodies
High hematocrit means
Dehydration, low plasma