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blood


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5 functions of blood
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transports, regulation of pH and osmosis, maintain of body temp., immunity, and clotting

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5 functions of blood
Transports, regulation of pH and osmosis, maintain of body temp., immunity, and clotting
What does blood transport?
Nutrients & waste products, gases ( oxygen & carbon dioxide), processed molecules: vitamin d, lactic acid, enzymes, hormones
What is the regulation of pH and osmosis
7.35-7.45 pH range which is maintained through buffers, ion balance ( sodium potassium, chlorine, calcium)
What does blood clot?
Proteins and fibers
Blood is 55% of what?
Matrix, liquid, plasma
Blood is 45% of what?
Cells and cell fragments
Plasma is made of three components, name all three, which is the most abundant?
Plasma is made up of 91% water, 7% protein, and 2% other solutes (nutrients, ions, waste, etc.). Water is the most abundant, making up 91% of plasma.
What two types of plasma proteins transport thyroid hormones? What is the difference between plasma and serum?
Alpha and beta, serum doesnt have fibrinogen and other clotting factors while plasma does
What is the buffy coat? Explain what is hematopoiesis and where it occurs, mention the specific places in adults where hematopoiesis occurs.
Where leukoctyes and platelets are found. are blood cell formation takes place in red bone marrow in sternum, ribs, vertebrae, pelvis, proximal epiphysis of humerus, and femur
What is a hemocytoblast, what would happen to blood if hemocytoblasts are destroyed ?
Stem cell precursor of all formed elements found in red bone marrow
What is the structure of hemoglobin? What part of the hemoglobin binds to oxygen?
Embryonic Hb, fetal Hb, adult Hb. ebryonic Hb & fetal Hb
How many red blood cells are in males?
4.6-6.2 million/microliter
What are red blood cells?
Are biconcave, flexible discs
What does the shape of red blood cells?
Provides an increased surface that provides more room for hemoglobin
What does mature cells lack?
Nucleus and oranelles
What are the functions for red blood cells?
Transport 02 from lungs to tissue, transport co2 from tissue to lungs
What does hemoglobin consist of?
2 alpha chains + 2 beta chains, bound to a heme group
Heme group consist of?
Red pigment molecule w/ an Fe at its center
4 heme groups/ hemoglobin....
4 oxygen/Hb molecule
Name of Hb+ CO2 and color?
Carbaminohemoglobin, dark red
Whats jaundice?
Yellow coloration of skin and white of the eyes due to an accumulation of bilirubin in blood
What causes jaundice?
Infections, blockage of bile ducts, excessive destruction of red blood cells
What are leukocytes and where are they found?
White blood cells, found in buffy coat?
What are the two types of white blood cells?
Granulocytes and agranulocytes
Three types of granulocytes?
Neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils
Two types of agranulocytes?
Lymphocytes, monocytes
Immunce system cells characteristics
Amoeboid movement, diapedesis, chemotaxis, pus
What does neutrophils have?
Granules and lobated nuclei(PMN)
Neutrophilis are the first to do what?
First responders, first to leave circulation
Neutrophils secretes....
Lysozymes(bacterial killing enzyme)
Eosinophils has what?
Granules, 2 lobs of lobated nuclei
Numbers elevated during what?
Allergic and inflammatory reactions
Whats does eosinophils secrete?
Anti-inflammatory chemicals called anti-histamins
Numbers increased in basophils in
Allergic and inflammatory reactions
What does histamin cause?
Inflammation and heparin, which prevents clotting
What dies monocytes become?
Tissue macrophages
What is monocytes involve in?
Lymphocyte activation
Platelets are
Cell fragments
Platelets are made by
Megakaryocytes
Platelets prevent blood loss in two ways
Forming platelets plug, promoting formation and contraction of clots that help seal breaks in vessels
3 steps of hemostasis
Vascular spasms,platelet plug formation, clotting or coagulation
What are vascular spasms
Causes blood vessel to shrink
Chemicals in vascular spasms
Thromboxanes and endothelins
What is patelet plug formation
Platelet adhesion to exposed collagen of damaged blood vessel
What does platelet release
ADP and thromboxanes
Prothrombinase converts
Prothrombin- thrombin
Thrombin converts
Fibrinogen - fibrin
What are two characteristics of extrinsic pathway
Its quicker, can be activated by glass
What is fibrinolysis
The process by which plasmin hydrolyzes clots
What is plasminogen
The precursor of plasmin
What does blood fractionation have
Packed red blood cells, plasma, platelets, cryoprecipitates
Most human red blood cells have what
A protein inserted in its cell membrane called antigen d
A person who lacks antigen D will make what
Antibody anti D if exposed to the antigen
When do antibodies develope?
ONLY after exposure to D antigen
High hematocrit means
Dehydration, low plasma