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Chapter 19

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is a chemical compound or element necessary for good health that is found in food

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200 questions
Is a chemical compound or element necessary for good health that is found in food
Essential nutrients
Are nutrients that the body cannot make in the amounts essential for good health: therefore it is necessary to obtain these nutrients through the diet or from another source
Is a measurement of energy, much as a pound is a measurement of weight
Dietary reference intake (DRI)
Refers to a set of nutrient-based values for evaluating and planning diets
What is the purpose of DRIs
To help individuals optimize their health, prevent disease, and avoid consuming to much nutrient
What does the colored areas on the my plate show or mean
She how much you should eat from the food groups
What are the names of the food plate
Fruit, vegetables, grains, protein, diary
Nurses use have basic knowledge of what in promoting nutrition
Basic knowledge of nutrition & help patients understand the importance of their diets to encourage compliance
Along with the my plate the USDA also suggest what
Balance calories by reducing portions, increase intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains; and reduce the amount of sodium and sugary foods in the diet
What must nurses always consider with nutrition
The patients nutritional state and evaluate the patients nutritional history to plan quality patient care
What is good nutrition
Essential for optimal health throughout all stages of life
What are the six classes of essential nutrients
Carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and water
Three major functions of nutrient include
Providing energy, building and repairing tissues, regulating body processes
Is the combination of all chemical process that takes place in living organisms
What are the two important facts researchers have found that the body uses nutrients
Individual nutrients have many functions on the body; no nutrients work alone
CHO (carbohydrates)
Are organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
What are carbohydrates made up of
Monosaccharides and disaccharide
Monosaccharides only have
One unit of sugar
Disaccharide are made up of
Two sugar units bonded together
Complex carbohydrates are made up of what
Long chains of glucose (sugar) units
The three types of complex carbohydrates are
Starch, glycogen, and dietary fiber
Glycogen (also called animal starch)
Is stored from carbohydrates; made from simple sugars and stored in the liver and muscles and used when the glucose level is low
Dietary fiber
Refers to food that humans cannot break down (digest)
What does insoluble fiber do
Softens stool, speeds transition of foods through the digestive tract, and reduces pressure in the colon
Water soluble fiber helps what
Lower cholesterol levels and reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease
Digestion of carbohydrates begin
In the mouth with mechanical digestion; chewing of food into small pieces s it can be swallowed
All carbohydrates are broken down where
In the digestive tract into monosaccharides before they are absorbed and eventually converted into glucose
Are organic substances of a fatty nature that are insoluble in water and are necessary for good health
A feeling of fullness and satisfaction from food
Saturated fatty acids
Chemical bounds are filled with completely or saturated with hydrogen ( generally of animal origin and are solid at room temperature)
Unsaturated fatty acids
Has one ore more places on its chemical chain in which hydrogen is missing
Is a process in which hydrogen is added to a aft of vegetable origin (unsaturated) to make it more saturated or solid
Trans fatty acids
Are unsaturated fatty acids that have been completely hydrogenated
A lipid belonging to a class of chemical substances called sterols
Cholesterol is a building block for
Cell membranes and hormones such as estrogen and testosterone
What needs to happen for fat to be digested
Must be emulsified, or broken into smaller globules
Are molecules made of of lipids surrounding by protein
What are the four types of lipoproteins
Chlymicrons, high-density lipoprotein (HDLs), low-density lipoprotein (LDLs) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDLs)
What does cholesterols found in LDLs increase
The risk of atherosclerosis by contributing to plaque build up on the artery wall
Protein provides
The building blocks for blood and bone and they are the structural part of every cell
The human body contains thousands of different protein which are
Essential for tissue growth, repair and wound healing
The plasma protein aid in
Fluid balance within the body
A protein in the red blood cells that carries oxygen throughout the body
Amino acids
Are the building block of protein
A complete protein
Is one that contains all nine essential amino acids in sufficient quantity and ratio for the body's needs
Complete protein are generally of animal origin are found in foods such as
Meat, poultry, fish, milk, cheese, eggs, and soy products
Incomplete proteins
Are those that are lacking one or more of the essential amino acids
Excludes all animal products, and more planning is required to obtain sufficient protein
Strict vegetarian also need to include a reliable source of
Vitamin B12 in the diet, because vitamin B12 is found exclusively in animal foods
Nitrogen balance
Is achieved when the amount of nitrogen(protein) taken is equal to the amount of nitrogen excreted in the urine
Insufficient protein is being taken in and the body is breaking down more tissue that its building
Prolonged negative nitrogen balance
Eventually can cause atrophy of muscles, as well as poor functioning of all body systems
Is a protein deficiency; it involves deficiency of protein as well as all other energy-providing foods; a chronic condition characterized by wasting of body tissue
A result of severe protein restriction in the presence of calories
Organic compounds that are harmful essential in small quantities for normal metabolism and for the growth and maintenance of the body
Pernicious anemia
A progressive microcytic megaloblastic anemia
Nutrient-dense foods
Foods that contain large amounts of nutrients in relation to kilocalories
Vitamin c contributes to the healing of
Wounds, burns, fractures; it serves as an antioxidant; and is necessary for adrenal gland function
A deficiency of vitamin c can result in
Bleeding in the bones and joints, easy bone fracture, poor wound healing, and anemia
Of all the B-complex vitamins there are three especially important
Niacin-B3, folic acid-B9, cyanocobalamin-B12
Why is Niacin (B3) important
In the production of energy from glucose and is involved in the repair of DNA
How can you obtain B3
Eating meat, poultry, fish, peanuts or enriched whole grain bread and cereal
What is B9( folic acid) used for
Formation of DNA and proper cell division
How is B9(folic acid) obtained
Folic acid is the synthetic for of the vitamin; folate is water soluble that is found naturally in foods such as spinach, lentils, and garbanzo beans
What is vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) used for
Plays an essential part in the production of hemoglobin and myelin
Inorganic and are single elements rather than compound similar to vitamins they help regulate bodily functions without providing energy and are essential to good health
Major minerals
Are those needed in amounts greater than 100mg/day
Major minerals include
Calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, sodium, potassium, and chloride
Trace minerals
Are those needed in much smaller amounts less than 100mg/day
Trace minerals include
Iron, zinc, iodine, selenium, cooper, manganese, fluoride, chromium, and molybdenum
Calcium function
Formation and maintenance of bones and teeth, blood, clotting, nerve conduction, muscle contraction
Calcium deficiency
Osteoporosis; weak, and more porous bones, stunted growth in children
Chloride function
Fluid and acid-base balance
Chloride deficiency
Metabolic alkalosis (defined as elevation of the body's pH above 7.45)
Chromium function
Maintenance of normal glucose metabolism
Calcium food source
Milk, cheese, milk products, green leafy vegetables, broccoli, legumes, fish with bones, fortified cereals
Chloride food source
Salt, processed foods, water supply
Chromium food source
Whole grains, liver, nuts, cheese
Chromium deficiency
Impaired glucose tolerance, diabetes- like symptoms,
Cooper food source
Organ meats, seafood, nuts, seeds, whole grain, cocoa
Cooper function
Necessary for utilization of iron
Cooper deficiency
Anemia, vascular skeletal problems
Fluoride food source
Water supply, plants grown in fluoride-rich soil
Fluoride functions
Increase tooth resistance to decay, stimulates bone formation
Fluoride deficiency
Increased susceptibility to tooth decay
Iodine food source
Iodized salt, seafood, plants grown in iodine-rich soil
Iodine functions
Part of thyroxin, which helps regulate metabolism, growth, and development
Iodine deficiency
Goiter: enlarged thyroid gland, weight gain, skin and hair change Cretinism: mental and physical retardation of fetus
Iron food source
Clams, liver, oysters, meat poultry, fish, legumes, whole and enriched grains, fortified cereals
Iron functions
Part of hemoglobin and myoglobin; necessary for oxygen transport and use in the body; part of some enzymes; energy metabolism
Iron deficiency
Microcytic: hypochromic anemia: fatigue, weakness, headache, apathy, pale skin, decreased immune function children: reduce attention span, decreased ability to learn