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fluid, electrolytes, pH balance


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[Front]


to survive we need to maintain normal volume and composition of
[Back]


extracellular fulid(ECF), intracellular fluid (ICF)

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fluid, electrolytes, pH balance - Details

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To survive we need to maintain normal volume and composition of
Extracellular fulid(ECF), intracellular fluid (ICF)
Fluid balance
Amout of water gained each day equals the amount lost
Electrolyte balance
Ion gain each day equals the ion loss
Acid base balance
H+ gain is offset by their loss
Fractions of H2O in ICF and ECF
2/3 in ICF, 1/3 in ECF
Largest subdivisions of ECF are
Interstitial fluid of peripheral tissue, plasma of circulating blood
Intracellular (ICF)
Cytosol of cells
Extracellular(ECF) components
Plasma, interstitial fluid, lymph, CSF, other:synovial, endolymph, perilymph
Principal ions in ECF
Sodium, chloride, bicarbonate(HO3)
ICF contains abundance of
Potassium(the main cation), negatively charged proteins
To maintain homeostasis the body needs to
Respond to changes in the ECF, NOT the ICF
Our cells dont
Move water molecules by molecules by active transport
Water moves....in response to.....
Passively, osmotic gradients
The bodys content of water or electrolytes will rise if.....and will fall if....
Dietary gains exceed losses(overhydration), losses exceed gains(dehydration)
Increased release of ADH has two important effects
Stimulates water conservation at the kidneys, reducing urinary water losses and concentrating the urine stimulates thirst center,promoting intake of fluids
ADH response is
Increases thirst, increase water reabsorption in DCT and collecting ducts
In aldosterone, the higher the plama concentration of alderstone
The more effeciently the kidneys conserve Na+(reabsorb sodium and secrete potassium)
Aldosterone is secreted in response to
Rising K+ (hyperkalemia), falling Na+ levels (hyponatremia),activation of the renin-angiotensin system
Aldosterone acts on
DCT and collecting ducts
The hormone atrial natriuretic peptides(ANP) is caused by
Elevated blood pressure or increased blood volume
Hormone atrial natriuretic peptides(ANP) reduces
Thirst and BLOCKS the release of ADH and aldosterone
All the effects of ANP result in
Diuresis,loose fluids in kidneys
Edema
The movement of abnormal amounts of water from plasma into interstitial fluid
Hyponatremia is a sign of
Overhydration or water excess
If ECF is hypertonic
Water moves from ICF-ECF
If ECF is hypotonic
Water moves ECF-ICF
Effects of loss of body water
Severe thirst, dryness and wrinkling of skin, fall in plasma volume and blood pressure
Until ICF and ECF are isotonic again
Osmosis will move water out of the ICF and into ECF
Sodium losses occur through
Urine and perspiration
When sodium is too low
ADH and aldosternone is secreted
Increase aldosterone will
Increase sodium absorption and potassium secretion
Hyperkalemia causes
Cardiac arrhythmias
Hypokalemia causes
Muscular weakness and paralysis
Calcium homeostasis reflects on
Reserves in bones, rate of absorption in digestive tract, rate of loss at kidneys
Parathyroid and calcitriol
RAISE concentrations; actions are opposed by calcitonin
Hypocalcemia
Osteoporosis,muscle cramps, muscle spasms, convulsions
If plasma is below 7.35
Acidemia, results in acidosis
If plasma is above 7.45
Alkalemia, results in alkalosis
Acidosis can result in
A coma, cardiac failure, and circulatory collapse
Volatile acid
Can leave solution and enter atmosphere
Fixed acids
Most acids, produced by the body
Organic acid
Participants i n or by-products of aerobic metabolism
Buffers
Can provide(increases pH) or remove(decreases pH) H+
Amino acid/protein buffer system
Depend on ability of amino acids to respond to changes in pH by accepting of releasing H+
In hemoglobin buffer system it
Absorb carbon dioxide from plasma, converts into carbonic acid
In hemoglobin buffer system it
Bicarbonate ion moves into plasma
Carbonic acid bicarbonate buffer system role
Is to prevent changes in pH caused by organic acids and fixed acids in ECF
Carbonic acid bicarbonate buffer system limitations
Only functions when respiratory and control centers work normal limited by availability of bicarbonate ions
During acidosis
Bicarbonate ions are released from storage
Pulmonary compensation in acidosis
Increased respiratory rate gets rid of excess C02 produced
Renal compensation in acidosis
Kidneys secrete and excrete excess hydrogen ions
Pulmonary compensation in alkalosis
Lower respiratory rate increases carbon dioxide levels
Kidney compensation in alkalosis
Kidneys secreate and excrete bicarbonate ions
Protein buffers in alkalosis
Release hydrogen ions
PCO2 rises
PH fall
PCO2 falls
PH rises
Stimulation of chemoreceptors leads to
An INCREASE in RESPIRATORY RATE
Chemoreceptors are stimulate if
High CO2 present or acidosis
Renal contribution in pH is limited to
Secretion of H+ activity of buffers removal of CO2 reabsorption NA+ and HCO3
When alkalosis or high pH develops
H+ secretion at kidneys decline tuble cells dont reclaim bicarbonates collectiond system transports HCO3 into tubular fluid releasing acid ino peritublar fluid
Metabolic acidosis
Production of large number of fixed or organic acids
Severe bicarbonate loss
Chronic diarrhea
Lactic acidosis
Strenuous excercise
Ketoacidosis
Large quantities of ketone bodies, diabetes mellitus
Metabolic alkalosis occurs when
HCO3 concentrations become elevated
Metabolic alkalosis symtoms when
A person w/ prolong vomiting
What can cause metabolic alkalosis
Increase amounts of anti acids
Compensations for metabolic alkalosis involves
Reduction in breathing rate ,increased loss of HCO3 in urine